Bird Families

Olive Sicalis / Sicalis olivascens


viewSicalis oliveSicalis olivascensd'Orbigny & Lafresnaye1837
tribeUncertain positionIncertae sedis
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fan-tailed Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of the intraspecific one. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise at all by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

The principle of the drug

Cialis is a powerful inhibitor designed to relax the smooth muscles of the penis that form the main bodies in it. This is due to the fact that the drug in question expands the vessels and the blood fills the corpus cavernosum, which leads to the appearance of blood pressure in it. At the end of intercourse due to the action of enzymes, the erection stops.

Features of the action

Cialis is a drug designed to restore sexual relations in general, namely to treat erectile dysfunction.Moreover, by using the considered medical device, due to its reliability and high efficiency, it is possible to completely eliminate erectile dysfunction without professional medical intervention, which, of course, can be considered as one of the main positive qualities of this drug. In addition, Cialis is easy to use, which is just as important.

Another significant advantage from the point of view of the functioning of the drug in question is that the effect of its action occurs only with the manifestation of sexual desire. This determines the basic rule that must be taken into account in the process of using Cialis, which is that taking pills should be carried out only in a state of arousal, that is, if there is a desire to have sexual intercourse. In this case, the action of the drug will be most effective, and the effect of it will be observed throughout the entire continuation of sexual intercourse. If this condition is not observed, the drug may not work and the desired effect will not occur. In other words, Cialis functions only when necessary, and not constantly, as a result of which this drug cannot be considered as a normal stimulant. This is its significant advantage over other medicines of a similar purpose.

How to take Cialis

The tablets should be taken no more than once a day and no less than 15 minutes before the expected proximity. The manufacturer considers this frequency of taking his product to be quite sufficient for the full sexual functioning of the body. The action of the drug is 36 hours.


The drug in question is suitable for men who have problems with sexual activity, who need stimulation with drugs like Cialis to maintain full sexual activity.

However, it should be borne in mind that the use of this drug is recommended only to those of them who are healthy in general, and especially have a healthy heart in order to avoid further disturbances in the performance of both the heart and the whole body, which Cialis may cause.

Overall drug assessment

At the end of the article, the main positive and negative qualities of Cialis should be cited.

The parameters of the drug belonging to the first category include the following:

- its action is manifested only at the right time,

- an erection achieved with the use of this remedy continues stably throughout the sexual intercourse,

- the effect produced by the drug gives its consumer confidence in their sexual capabilities,

- Cialis increases both the pleasure received from the corresponding process and the sensitivity during the resulting orgasm,

- pleasant sensations from the action of the drug are experienced not only by its consumer, but also by the partner,

- the effect of the drug, and even more so its result, improves mood,

- Cialis can be useful even for people with severe impotence,

- the drug does not interfere and even, on the contrary, promotes conception,

- Cialis is combined with other medicines.

Naturally, you need to take into account the negative qualities of the drug:

- Cialis is incompatible with drugs for the treatment of the heart, namely with the nitrites they contain,

- these factors explain the dispensing of the drug by prescription, as well as the need for prior consultation,

- it is unacceptable to exceed the daily dose of 20 mg,

- it is undesirable to take this drug for a long time.