Bird Families

Red-necked Hawk / Accipiter erythrauchen

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Latin name:Accipiter gentilis
Detachment:Falconiformes
Family:Hawk
Additionally:European species description

Appearance and behavior... Quite a large predator, the female is one and a half times larger than a crow. Males weigh 520–1,200 g with a body length of 48–56 cm and a wingspan of 93–105 cm, females weigh 800–2,000 g with a body length of 58–68 cm and a wingspan of 108–127 cm. , elongated, the line of the forehead smoothly passes into the line of the ridge of the beak. Unlike small hawks, it has well-developed feather “trousers” on the shins. The piercing "evil" gaze of light eyes is very characteristic.

Description... The adult is almost monochromatic from above, gray-gray (male) or brownish-gray (female). The bottom, including the lower wing coverts, is whitish with dark transverse ripples (classic hawk color). In an adult, wide white eyebrows almost converge at the back of the head and contrast with a dark cap and a stripe across the eye, which is a reliable difference from the sparrowhawk and all other predators of the region. Small longitudinal streaks are developed on the throat. The undertail is one-color, white, fluffy, it stands out well in a flying bird, even when viewed from the side. The tail is gray, with 4–5 evenly spaced dark transverse stripes. The color intensity of the top, the density and intensity of the transverse stripes on the chest and belly vary greatly geographically, the lightest individuals (subspecies A. g.buteoides) are widespread in the north of the region, the darkest (subspecies A. g. caucasicus) - in the Caucasus.

The beak is dark, the beak is yellow, the eyes are bright yellow, up to orange in old males. The young individual is brownish, with a dark pattern and ocher edges of feathers on top and light ocher with dark barrel streaks - longitudinal and teardrop-shaped below. In a flying bird, transverse stripes are clearly visible not only on the tail, but also on top of the wings. The eyes are pale yellow, the waxes are dull grayish-yellow or gray. In a flying adult bird, the transverse stripes on the wings and tail can merge, which is why from a distance the bird appears monotonously light from below.

A flying male can be confused with a large female sparrowhawk, but goshaws of both sexes differ from sparrowhawks by a relatively shorter rounded tail with a wide base, wide at the base and slightly pointed to the top of the wings, massive addition. A flying young individual of ocher-brown color can be confused with a buzzard or wasp eater, but its tail is longer and wings are shorter, there are no dark spots on the wrist folds, the “fingers” of the primary flight feathers are poorly developed (the wing top looks rounded and solid). Unlike the sparrowhawk, buzzards and wasp eaters, the goshawk rarely hovers with an unfolded tail, usually flies low, under a forest canopy, with a folded tail and bent wings.

Vote... High ringing shriek "kyak, kyak, kyak, kyak. " or "kick, kick, kick. ", Marriage cry - vibrating"kiyayaya. ».

Distribution, status... It is widely distributed throughout the forest zone of Eurasia and North America, as well as in the forest-tundra and forest-steppe. There are isolated breeding grounds in the mountainous, mainly coniferous forests of the Caucasus, Western Asia, China, and Mexico. In Russia, the goshawk nests from the western borders to Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. This is a common species almost everywhere, but due to its secrecy, it rarely catches the eye. In recent years, it has been increasing in number, expanding its area, and began to settle in urban forest parks.

Lifestyle... A sedentary species, only a small part of the population migrates in winter to the south near the nesting area. It feeds on various birds, from sparrows to wood grouses and geese, sometimes catches squirrels, hares, small rodents. It hunts both in closed and open spaces (prefers mosaic biotopes), patrols the territory, flying at low altitude, or sits in ambush for a long time.

Prefers to nest in coniferous forests in separate pairs. Pairs start nesting even with snow cover, large, well-camouflaged nests are located in the depths of the crowns, often occupy the nests of other birds. Usually there are 3-4 nests on the permanent site of a pair. Fresh green twigs woven into the edge of the nest building are characteristic. At the nest they are secretive, careful, very rarely show aggressiveness.

The female lays and incubates 3-5 white eggs, over time they turn slightly brown. Incubation begins with the first or second egg, lasts 36–38 days, the same number of chicks are fed in the nest, young birds become completely independent only at the age of 70–90 days. Both downy plumage of chicks are grayish-buffy, the eyes of nesting chicks are dark.They change the youthful outfit for an adult next fall, maturity occurs at 2-4 years of age.

Goshawk, or goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)

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