Appearance . The spectacled guillemot looks like an ordinary one, but is larger, the wings are entirely black, there is a white spot around the eyes. In winter, the bottom is white, the top is monochromatic without white streaks.
Lifestyle . Inhabits rocky coasts of seas and islands.
A resident bird. Small in number.
Breeds in separate pairs or in small groups in cavities under stones and in deep crevices of rocks. Clutch in June, consists of one or two white eggs with blackish spots.
The food, habits and voice of the spectacled guillemot are the same as those of an ordinary one.
Similar species . It differs from the guillemot in the absence of white color on the wing and a white spot around the eyes, in winter - in a monochromatic top and a dark head.
Guillemot squad. A family of guinea pigs. Spectacled scraper.
Atlantic guillemot Cepphus grylle
The general coloration is black with a greenish tint above and somewhat brownish below, the main third of the inner webs of the flight feathers, the middle coverts and apical halves of the large upper wing coverts (the bases of the latter are black-brown), the axillary and wing lining are white.
In winter, only the oldest individuals remain in this plumage, while the vast majority have a white underside, including the chin and underside of the cheeks, and on the upper side, white edges and ends of feathers develop, especially wide on the head, neck and loin; on the latter, white even predominates over black.
In a young bird, the breast and belly are white, the sides are variegated, the top is black, but on the white wing coverts there are dark ends, the neck and craw are smoky. Wing tail, metatarsal beak its height at the base is about 1.0-1.1 cm.
Breeds on the northeastern coasts of America, on New Foundland, in the south. Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe and British Islands, Scandinavia, Finland and the Kola Peninsula, to the Solovetsky Islands and Onega Bay.
Polar guillemot Cepphus mandti
It differs in that the inner webs of the flight feathers are more than half white, and the large upper wing coverts are white to the bases or on the bases a little grayish-brown - not black-brown - in color.
In winter, white is more developed on the upper side, so that the loins appear all white.
Wing of the metatarsal beak its height at the base is about a opposite the middle of the nostril (according to a large number of measurements).
Breeds on Svalbard, Bear Island, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya archipelago and further east to the Bering Strait; in winter they roam very narrowly.
White-winged Pacific guillemot Cepphus columba columba (Ts.col.col.)
Breeds on the shores of the Bering Sea and Kamchatka, on the Commanders, in America south to California and north. the coast of Chukotka Land to Wrangel Land. The plumage, except for the difference indicated in the table, is the same in both subspecies, as is the size.
Kuril guillemot Cepphus columba snowi
The upper side is slate-black, the white mirror of the wing is strongly bifurcated, as indicated in the table, the bases of the inner webs of the flight feathers are grayish rather than white, the axillaries are short and most of the lower wing coverts are smoky, only the long forearm coverts are white.
In winter, the coloration is similar to the Atlantic guillemot, except for the wing mirror coloration, and even the underwing coverts are white. In a young bird, the white underside is speckled with dark tips of feathers, white middle parts of the feathers are visible on the mirror.
The wing is the beak and its height at the base is about 1.1 cm. It nests on the Kuril Islands and was taken in the southern part of Kamchatka.
Spectacled guillemot Cepphus carbo
The upper side is slate-black, the underside is slightly lighter, the underwing coverts and axillaries are brownish-gray, the inner webs of the flight feathers are light brown, the most anterior part of the forehead, chin and the patch around the eyes are white.
In winter, the underside is white, with dark markings on the sides. In juveniles, the front of the neck is grayish, the belly and sides are white, mottled at the ends of the feathers with dark brown.
Wing tail metatarsal beak its height at the base is about 1.25 cm.
Breeds on the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk, including the Kuril Islands, on the shores of the Ussuriysk Territory, Sakhalin, northern parts of Korea and Japan.