Bird Families

CYHLAZOMA SEVERUM NOTATUS (Heros notatus)

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1 bulbul à queue verte

2 bulbul moustac à tête olive

3 6319

See also other dictionaries:

Grünschwanzbleda - žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaeta-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Kleiner Grünschwanzbleda - mažasis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda notatus angl. lesser bristlebill vok. Kleiner Grünschwanzbleda, m pranc. bulbul jaunelore, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šeriasnapiai bulbiuliai… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Liste der Vögel Ghanas - Dieser Artikel wurde aufgrund von formalen und / oder inhaltlichen Mängeln in der Qualitätssicherung Biologie zur Verbesserung eingetragen. Dies geschieht, um die Qualität der Biologie Artikel auf ein akzeptables Niveau zu bringen. Bitte hilf mit,…… Deutsch Wikipedia

Bleda eximius - žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaetal-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

bulbul à queue verte - žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaeta-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

green-tailed bristlebill - žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaeta-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaeta-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šeriasnapiai ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

green-tailed chaeta-billed bulbul - žaliauodegis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda eximius angl. green tailed bristlebill vok. Grünschwanzbleda, m rus. green-tailed chaetal-billed bulbul, m pranc. bulbul à queue verte, m ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Bleda notatus - mažasis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda notatus angl. lesser bristlebill vok. Kleiner Grünschwanzbleda, m pranc. bulbul jaunelore, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šeriasnapiai bulbiuliai… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

bulbul jaunelore - mažasis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda notatus angl. lesser bristlebill vok. Kleiner Grünschwanzbleda, m pranc. bulbul jaunelore, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šeriasnapiai bulbiuliai… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

lesser bristlebill - mažasis šeriasnapis bulbiulis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Bleda notatus angl. lesser bristlebill vok. Kleiner Grünschwanzbleda, m pranc. bulbul jaunelore, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šeriasnapiai bulbiuliai… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

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Number of species in "sister" taxa

genusBulbul setae-billedBledaBonaparte
familyBulbul (Short-toed Thrushes)PycnonotidaeG. R. Gray1840
superfamilySlavkovSylvioidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fan-tailed Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Rainforest passerines skip the breeding season if it falls in a dry year

Thomas E. Martin and James C. Mouton of the University of Montana analyzed the reproduction and survival data of 38 rainforest passerine species in normal and dry years. The collection of material was carried out in Venezuela (from 2002 to 2008, the dry year was 2008) and Malaysia (from 2009 to 2018, the dry year was 2016).

Observations have shown that drought significantly reduces the level of bird reproduction in tropical forests on both continents. In the 18 studied species from Venezuela, it decreased on average by 51.9 percent, and in 20 species from Malaysia - by 36.3 percent. For example, in a normal year, Martin and Mouton found 65 used nests of gray-breasted forest wrens (Henicorhina leucophrys) in the model area in Venezuela, and only seven in a year with a lack of rainfall. At the same time, the number of adult individuals of different bird species in the studied territories in different years remained approximately the same, which indicates the refusal of some individuals from reproduction during a drought.

Male birds have to choose between attractive coloration and beauty of the song.

Sexual selection, which is based on the struggle for reproductive success, can potentially act as a powerful factor in speciation. This role is supported by mathematical models and individual works, but many attempts at a broader analysis did not reveal the expected relationship. A team of British bird watchers asked the question: Is it always correct in such studies to assess the power of sexual selection? It is generally assumed that sexual selection will affect all traits associated with mate competition and fertility. Often, sexual dimorphism in color is used as an indicator of sexual selection - differences in the color of males and females. However, the visual channel is not the only one that can be used to attract a partner. Thus, in many birds, acoustic signals serve this purpose. Using the order of Passeriformes (Passeriformes) as an example, the authors of the new study demonstrated that there is a compromise between the development of the two systems for attracting a partner: the advantages of males are mainly manifested either in vocalization or in appearance. This means that it is simply impossible to assess the role of sexual selection based on only one group of traits.

Songbirds have an extra chromosome

In songbirds (suborder Passeri), most cells in the body contain 40 pairs of chromosomes. In 1998, an additional chromosome in the germ cells was found in zebra finches, and in 2014 in their relatives, Japanese finches. Then this find was viewed as a genetic curiosity. It was present in the germ cells of females, as well as in the precursors of the germ cells of males, but it was also "thrown out" from them during the maturation of spermatozoa.

A group led by Pavel Borodin from the Novosibirsk Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences studied 14 species of songbirds from nine different families, as well as eight species of birds that do not belong to songbirds - geese, ducks, chickens, pigeons, gulls, swifts, falcons, parrots. In all singing species, an additional chromosome was found in the germ cells, while in other species it was not.

“We found that, unlike other birds and most other animals, all the species of songbirds studied contain a different number of chromosomes in somatic and germ cells. All of them, literally every bird studied, have an extra chromosome in the reproductive cells (COD). We have shown that the most common birds have an extra chromosome: siskins, swallows, tits, flycatchers, larks and rooks (the rook also belongs to songbirds). At the same time, the additional chromosome is absent in birds of all other orders, ”said Borodin N + 1.

He and his colleagues isolated and deciphered separate sections of additional chromosomes in the siskin, pale swallow, zebra finch and Japanese finch and found there numerous fragments of functional genes of the main genome. Simultaneously with Borodin's group, two independent groups of researchers discovered (1, 2) that the chromosomes in the germ cells of the zebra finch contain genes that are similar, but not identical to the genes of somatic cells. Some of these genes are present in multiple copies and produce RNA and proteins in the testes and ovaries of sexually mature birds.

“We hypothesize that COD emerged as an additional parasitic microchromosome in the common ancestor of all songbirds about 35 million years ago and underwent significant changes in size and genetic content, turning from a 'genomic parasite' into an important component of the germ cell genome. We do not yet know why it is needed and what advantages it can give to its carriers. Perhaps it was she who allowed songbirds to become the most numerous suborder (more than 5 thousand out of a total of 9-10 thousand bird species), create many forms, beautiful and amazing, and capture many ecological niches on all continents, ”the scientist noted.

Scientists believe that songbird COD can be seen as an evolutionary attempt to locally and temporarily increase the copy number of the desired genes without increasing the overall genome size and body weight. Birds need extra copies of genes in the germ cells during a short reproduction period, just to produce a lot of sperm and load the oocytes with a lot of proteins. And copies of these genes are not needed all year round and in all somatic cells.

“If we take into account that the COD of swallows, tits, warblers and many other small birds weighs about 0.1 picograms, and the entire genome is 1.2 picograms, it turns out to be a rather heavy burden to carry, and not just to carry, but also feed, water and multiply throughout life in all cells of the body. It is more convenient to store a set of genes for reproduction in a small toolbox, ”Borodin said.

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of intraspecific territoriality. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

Description - Beyblade Course Satumb (Satan) Season 5 Superking

And again, another novelty in the world of beyblades - the Course of Satumb, or as it is also called Satan. As in previous seasons, the owner of this top is Cisco - an interesting and extraordinary personality. Like the rest of the gamma beys, it consists of 5 main parts and belongs to the flagships of the 5th season of the cartoon.

The main characteristics of the Beyblade Course of Satumb:

  • TV series release date: April 25, 2020,
  • model under number: B-164,
  • full name: Curse Satan Hurricane Universe 1D Takara Tomy,
  • type of battle: defense,
  • structure: Superking Layer System,
  • chip: Satumb,
  • energy layer: Course,
  • chassis: 1D,
  • power drive: Hurricane,
  • driver: Univer.

As you can see, the beyblade Course Satumbus, as always, has a right-hand rotation and 5 movable balls on the ring in the body. This design makes it possible, without much effort, to quite confidently extinguish all powerful blows of the enemy. It is also worth considering the specific driver Univer, which is designed in such a way that does not allow Satumbu to fall on the side. There is a special rotating ring on the driver to reduce the resistance to the arena body when touched. Also, the tip itself also rotates, which allows the top to rotate for as long as possible.

Also in the assembly is a completely new power weighting agent 1D, specially designed for this model. You can buy the Beyblade Course Satumb and other new models in our online store Paraller

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