Bird Families

Hypericum - what kind of flower?


Kumquat (from whale. golden orange) Is a yellow-orange tropical fruit of the citrus family of an evergreen plant. This fruit also has other names - kinkan and fortunella. Outwardly, the kumquat looks like a very small oval orange. It reaches a maximum of 5 cm in length and 4 cm in width. The fruit is consumed completely with the peel. The taste of the fruit is very close to the sourish tangerine, but at the same time the rind has a sweet-tart aftertaste. The kumquat is native to the southern part of China.

The first literary mention of the kumquat dates back to the 12th century. in China. The fruits came to Europe thanks to the English botanist Robert Fortune, who brought them to the annual London Horticultural Exhibition in 1846. Initially, the fruits were attributed to the citrus genus, but in 1915 they were separated into a separate subgenus - fortunella.

Export kumquat plantations are located in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Greece and the southern United States. There are several types of kumquat: Hong Kong, Malay, Marumi, Meiwa, Nagami and Fukushi.

Selecting and storing kukwat

When buying a kumquat, you should pay attention to its appearance. The peel should have a deep orange color, be shiny, smooth and free from visible mechanical damage, dark spots and cracks. Also, the fruit should be moderately soft. Excessive softness may indicate overripeness of the fruit, and hardness - about immaturity.

Store the kumquat in the refrigerator in the fruit and vegetable compartment for three weeks. But before that, the fruits should be thoroughly washed from dirt and dried so that not a drop of moisture remains on the surface. If whole fruits or processed in mashed potatoes are placed in a freezer at a temperature of -15 to -19 ° C, then useful substances can be stored for up to six months.

Cooking use

Kumquat is widely used in cooking. In most cases, it is consumed raw and used to decorate dishes: salads, sandwiches, buffet snacks, cocktails, mulled wine and as a snack for strong alcoholic beverages. In thermally processed dishes, kumquat is used to prepare sweet and sour sauces for vegetables and meat, for meat or fish baked in the oven, as well as for the preparation of desserts: candied fruits, jams, juices, curd-yogurt casseroles, etc.


Larvae (lat. Campephagidae ) Is a family of small or medium-sized songbirds that live mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. In total, there are approximately 85 species of larvae-eaters, divided into 8-9 genera. Until recently, the genus of forest larvae (Tephrodornis), but it is probably closer to the forest shrike (Prionopidae) or to the family Malaconotidae... Another monotypic genus of black-breasted larvae (Chlamydochaera) is currently assigned to the thrush family (Turdidae). Some birds in this family are in danger of extinction, including the species Coracina bicolor, Coracina newtoni and Pericrocotus igneus.

1.1. Description

Small or medium-sized birds 13-35 cm long and weighing from 6 to 180 g. The beak is wide at the base, slightly curved downward, with teeth, well adapted for catching insects in the air. There are hard, bristly feathers around the nasal openings. The wings are rather long, tapering at the tip. The tail is of medium length, rounded or stepped. Back feathers and rump feathers in most species have a rigid, flattened shaft and a soft and thin end, which allows birds to raise them on end in case of approaching danger. Plumage varies greatly in different species: from nondescript (as in most shrike larvae, in particular in the Mauritian shrike larvae (Coracina typica)) to brightly colored (for example, in long-tailed larvae - in particular, in the species Pericrocotus igneus). As a rule, the plumage of females is calmer compared to males.

1.2. Spread

Distributed in the tropical and subtropical zones of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia. On the territory of the Russian Federation, one species is found - the gray larvaeater (Pteropodocys divaricatus), living in deciduous and mixed forests of the Amur Region and in the south of Primorsky Territory. The range of genera of forest, flycatchers and simply larvaeaters is mostly limited to the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Representatives of island larvae live in Australia.

1.3. Habitats

In the overwhelming case, they live in trees, often in the upper tier of the forest, near the leaf canopy. Many species prefer forest edges. About 11 species prefer more open spaces. Previously, it was believed that the only species that spends most of its time on earth is the Australian forest larvaeater (Pteropodocys maxima), but this bird is currently regarded as belonging to a different family. It is found in swampy, humid tropical or arid xerophytic forests, in mangroves, in thickets of shrubs or savannas. Most species are sedentary and tied to a certain territory. However, some species, especially those found in Africa and Australia, migrate over short distances. Three species of larvae from Central and East Asia are migratory birds: for example, the gray larvae (Pericrocotus divaricatus) winters in the Philippines.

1.4. Behavior and reproduction

They are found alone, in pairs, or in flocks of the same sex (larvaeaters). Coracina lineata spends the night in groups. The breeding period of larvaeaters has not been sufficiently studied to date, but it has been noticed that most species, with the exception of Lalage tricolor, breed either in the rainy season or immediately after its end. Monogamous, reproduce in pairs (not colonies). The nest in most birds is built by both the male and the female, on a horizontal or forked branch, and is a small, shallow cup-shaped formation of dry branches of trees, bark, moss, lichen, grass and cobwebs, near which it can often be found. Clutch consists of 1-5 (most often 2-3) eggs. In most species, only the female incubates. The incubation period is 14-25 days. Both parents take care of the chicks. Chicks leave the nest in 13-24 days.

1.5. Food

They feed mainly on insects and other arthropods, including caterpillars (hence the name). Many species also eat seeds and fruits of plants: for example, the white-browed larvaeater (Lalage leucomela) and the species Coracina lineata love figs. In search of food, they examine the crowns of trees and shrubs, foliage, less often trunks or large branches. They often catch insects on the fly, on occasion they find them on the ground.

2. Genera and species

  • African larvae ( Campephaga )
    • Black African larvaeater ( Campephaga flava )
    • Blue-black African larvaeater ( Campephaga petiti )
    • Red-shouldered African larvaeater ( Campephaga phoenicea )
    • Purple-throated African larvaeater ( Campephaga quiscalina )
    • Campephaga sulphurata
  • Orange larvae ( Campochaera )
    • Orange Larvaeater ( Campochaera sloetii )
  • Shrike larvae ( Coracina )
    • Celebesian shrike grub-eater ( Coracina abbotti )
    • Mountain Shrike Larvae ( Coracina analis )
    • Moluccan shrike grub-eater ( Coracina atriceps )
    • Blue Shrike Larvae ( Coracina azurea )
    • Two-colored shrike larvae ( Coracina bicolor )
    • Red-spotted shrike larvae ( Coracina boyeri )
    • Thick-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina caeruleogrisea )
    • Forest Shrike Larvae ( Coracina caesia )
    • Melanesian shrike larvae ( Coracina caledonica )
    • Coracina ceramensis
    • Madagascar shrike larvae ( Coracina cinerea )
    • Filipino shrike larvae ( Coracina caerulescens )
    • Coracina dispar
    • Striped shrike larvae ( Coracina dohertyi )
    • Dwarf shrike larvae ( Coracina fimbriata )
    • Island Shrike Larvae ( Coracina fortis )
    • Silvery Shrike Larvae ( Coracina graueri )
    • Cicadic Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina holopolia )
    • Coracina incerta
    • Coracina ingens
    • Coracina javensis
    • Black-faced Shrike Larvae ( Coracina larvata )
    • White-lumbar shrike larvae ( Coracina leucopygia )
    • Yellow-eyed shrike larvae ( Coracina lineata )
    • Long-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina longicauda )
    • Coracina macei
    • Coracina maxima
    • Sharp-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina mcgregori )
    • Black-headed shrike grub-eater ( Coracina melanoptera )
    • Coracina melas
    • Funeral Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina melaschistos )
    • Coracina mindanensis
    • Black-bellied Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina montana )
    • Dark-shouldered shrike grub-eater ( Coracina morio )
    • Reunion shrike grub-eater ( Coracina newtoni )
    • Masked Shrike Larvae ( Coracina novaehollandiae )
    • Coracina ostenta
    • White-winged shrike larvae ( Coracina papuensis )
    • Tiny Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina parvula )
    • White-chested Shrike Larvae ( Coracina pectoralis )
    • Coracina personata
    • Garden Shrike Larvae ( Coracina polioptera )
    • Coracina salomonis
    • Slate shrike larvae ( Coracina schistacea )
    • Dark Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina schisticeps )
    • Stripe-bellied shrike larvae ( Coracina striata )
    • Coracina sula
    • Sunda Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina temminckii )
    • Thin-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina tenuirostris )
    • Mauritian shrike grub-eater ( Coracina typica )
  • Flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus )
    • Black-winged flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus hirundinaceus )
    • Brown-backed flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus picatus )
  • Whistler larvae ( Lalage )
    • Black-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage atrovirens )
    • Red-bellied Whistler Larvae ( Lalage aurea )
    • White-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage leucomela )
    • Long-tailed whistler larvae ( Lalage leucopyga )
    • Spotted Whistler Grub ( Lalage maculosa )
    • Filipino whistler larvae ( Lalage melanoleuca )
    • White-fronted whistler larvae ( Lalage nigra )
    • Brown-backed whistler larvae ( Lalage sharpei )
    • White-winged Whistler Larvae
    • Lalage tricolor
  • Lobotos
    • Lobotos lobatus
    • Lobotos oriolinus
  • Long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus )
    • Short-billed long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus brevirostris )
    • Pericrocotus cantonensis
    • Dwarf long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus cinnamomeus )
    • Gray larvaeater ( Pericrocotus divaricatus )
    • White-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus erythropygius )
    • Black-red long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus ethologus )
    • Fire-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus flammeus )
    • Pericrocotus igneus
    • Sumbawan long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus lansbergei )
    • Sumatran long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus miniatus )
    • Pink long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus roseus )
    • Gray-throated long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus solaris )
This abstract is based on an article from the Russian Wikipedia. Synchronization completed 07/17/11 00:54:21 AM
Categories: Animals alphabetically, Bird families, Larvaeidae.
Text available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license.

Hypericum - what kind of flower is it and why both florists and buyers love it so much.

The term "hypericum" is known only to experts in botany. The vast majority of people are familiar with another, familiar word: "St. John's wort". Yes, we are talking about a well-known flower! More precisely, about flowers, because the genus "Hypericum" includes many species that differ in the size and color of the petals.

These flowers grow in a wide variety of countries and climates, from the Mediterranean to the North. They can be found literally everywhere: on alpine meadows, on mountain slopes, forest edges, glades, in fields, along roads ... The main thing is that there is enough sunlight.

The most popular species is St. John's wort, well known to many people. The fact is that this plant has pronounced healing properties. Ancient physicians knew about this well, using his infusions and decoctions. Rich in vitamins and minerals, tannins, it effectively helps with many diseases. The golden yellow flowers of St. John's wort appear closer to the middle of summer. Modest in appearance, they look beautiful in field bouquets, especially next to daisies, bells and cornflowers.

Florists use a completely different, unusual for us hypericum variety.

Many professional florists like to use hypericum in their work. True, it is not the flowers of St. John's wort that are used more often, but larger and brighter flowers of other species: for example, St. John's wort, which grows in the Crimea and the Caucasus, as well as the Olympic St. John's wort, whose range covers Bulgaria and Turkey. St. John's wort is especially appreciated, not only because of the large and brightly colored petals, but also because of the long flowering period (until the end of September).

Hypericum is also appreciated by florists because faded buds turn into beautiful green or red berries. They look especially good next to yellow or yellow-orange petals.

Very pleasant aroma - that's why our customers love it.

St. John's wort is not only attractive in appearance, but also exudes a delicate pleasant aroma that has a healing effect on humans. It helps to get rid of anxiety, stress, and improves well-being. Therefore, the sprigs of blooming hypericum are a welcome ingredient in many bouquets! Moreover, the flowers of hypericum look great against the background of many garden flowers, especially those with a red, orange or yellow color. They well and harmoniously complement the beauty of their "curvy" brothers, without getting lost in their "company".

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The beautiful spring holiday on March 8 is on the doorstep. On this day, men will congratulate women, present them with gifts. Of course, women should be appreciated and cared for not only on holidays, but since March 8 is considered an international women's day, a long tradition must be observed. Well, where there is a holiday, there should be flowers, where can we go without them!

March 8 is a special holiday. Even though winter is still very reluctant to give up its positions, even if it is cold and dark enough early, you can still feel the approach of spring. And on this day, men congratulate women, tell them warm words of love, and present gifts.

The last winter month has already ended. And although it is still cold and a lot of snow, spring is steadily approaching. On the threshold of the bright spring holiday on March 8, when men congratulate women. And, of course, on this day you need to congratulate your mother, say kind words to her and give her a gift!

Description and characteristics of the variety

Bell pepper Lamuyo F1 - a hybrid from the Partner company. It is a sweet hybrid variety that can be grown in greenhouses and outdoor conditions, depending on the climate. The bush is medium-sized, about 60 cm, although in the greenhouse it can stretch even higher. Due to the large number of fruits, it requires a garter.

The fruits ripen 95-100 days after germination. They are massive, with walls 7-8 mm each and weighing 200-250 g. The taste is rich and sweet. The color is red, the shape is trapezoidal.

Advantages and disadvantages

  • early ripeness,
  • high yield,
  • great taste,
  • disease resistance,
  • universal use,
  • good transportability and keeping quality.

  • inability to prepare seeds from fruits.


Sowing seedlings begins in late February or early March. Seeds are pre-germinated by wrapping them in a damp cloth. Seedlings are allowed to rise in the warmth - + 23-26 degrees, after which they are transferred to a windowsill with lighting for at least 12 hours a day.

Growing and care

Watered under the root with settled warm water. Adult bushes need watering 1-2 times a week, more often in the heat. Young people - every 2 days in small portions. After that, the soil is loosened.

Make 2-4 dressings, depending on the condition of the soil. Mineral preparations and ready-made fertilizers like "Aelita-vegetable" are used.