Home / - Next species Volume 6 / Lesser spotted woodpecker / Dendrocopos minor (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Species name:||Lesser spotted woodpecker|
|Latin name:||Dendrocopos minor (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|English name:||Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Lesser Pied Woodptcker|
|French name:||Pic epeichette|
|Russian synonyms:||lesser woodpecker, woodpecker|
|Genus:||Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos Koch, 1816)|
|Status:||Nesting, sedentary species. Some of the individuals roam.|
General characteristics and field signs
One of the smallest woodpeckers of the fauna of Eastern Europe and North Asia: body length 161-175 mm, wingspan 288-300 mm. The general color is composed of a combination of white and dark areas of plumage, on the underside of the body, unlike other woodpeckers of the genus Dendrocopos, it does not have a red color
A very mobile bird, often feeding, like tits, hanging down with its back on thin end branches of trees. Often, in search of food, it examines large herbaceous plants, while behaving very trustingly, letting a person go 1-2 m. In the nesting and pre-nesting periods, it is noisy. In the spring, it drum very actively, usually settling on tree trunks for this. The fraction of the lesser spotted woodpecker is longer and smoother in comparison with the great spotted woodpecker. By its general nature, it is closest to the drum roll of the white-backed woodpecker.
In addition to the drum roll characteristic of birds of both sexes, there are several more types of signals. Most of them are based on the same syllable "ki" or "kii-i". The most characteristic is an indicative signal, sounding loud, with a somewhat plaintive tinge of a series of shouts, in which one syllable is well distinguishable from another: “kii-kii-kii. ". The territorial signal is very similar to it. These types of screams are most often heard in the fall and early spring. In case of alarm, woodpeckers emit a cry that sounds continuously for a minute or more - “kikikiki. ”, Then increasing in strength, then subsiding. Several more types of signals are distinguished, differing in strength, tonality and situational affiliation.
The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is well distinguished from all other spotted woodpeckers inhabiting the central regions of Eastern Europe in its small size - almost two times smaller than all woodpeckers - and in color details, especially the head. The front part of the head in males of the lesser spotted woodpecker is bright red, in females it is white. The color of the head of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker also differs well from the Lesser and Great Sharp-winged Woodpeckers, which are close to it in size.
Lesser spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor) - a representative of the order of woodpeckers has a motley black and white plumage. The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is considered the smallest species of woodpecker in Europe. The body size of this bird ranges from 13 to 16 centimeters in length, and its weight reaches a maximum of 22 grams. The wingspan of birds can be up to 30 centimeters. A distinctive feature is the absence of red in the undertail area. Males have a characteristic red color of the top of the head with a black edging, while in females the forehead and anterior region of the crown are colored only white. The tail has a stiff plumage. Small longitudinal stripes are visible on the sides. The lower part of the body is off-white. The iris of the eyes is brown with a reddish tint.
The population of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker has spread on the northern side of the Palaearctic, from the shores of the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This species also settled in the European region of Russia. He chooses mixed and deciduous forests as a habitat, giving preference to a forest stand with soft wood. Can be populated in some parks and gardens. Unlike other woodpeckers, it is quite common in sparse woodlands.
In its diet, it prefers insects, which it preys in the crevices of the tree bark. Can be hung from tree branches to catch insects. The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker destroys up to 72 species of insects. During the nesting period, openly living insects are chosen. And after the nesting period, it begins to look for the larvae of longhorn beetles and bark beetles, which it collects under the bark or in thin branches of shrubs. In order to get food, he hammers the bark of various trees. But most often he prefers to collect caterpillars, beetles or ants.
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As a rule, the breeding season of Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers begins in April, when the sonorous trill of males can be heard. The male and female are engaged in arranging the nest for the offspring. The hollow of an old tree is chosen as nests, which are hollowed out with their beak. They prefer to settle at a height of up to 7 meters. Birches, aspens and alders are preferred as trees. And for the litter of the hollow, only wood dust is used. Typically, the female bears 3 to 6 eggs. The eggs appear white and shiny. Eggs are laid in April or May. No more than one brood per year. It is noteworthy that both the male and the female are engaged in incubation. The male does this mainly at night for 14 days.
Small chicks hatch in May or June. Cubs grow strong within three weeks of life, and then can leave their parents' territory. During the period when the chicks are not yet matured, the female, together with the male, is actively engaged in foraging for herself and her offspring.
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Chick
Lesser spotted woodpeckers are predominantly sedentary birds. In order to designate their territory, they use the sound "roll". Some individuals prefer to be high in the crowns of trees. With the onset of cold weather, birds often organize in flocks with other representatives of tits and pikas. The voice of small spotted woodpeckers is very shrill and a little alarming.
Coloring. An adult male. The forehead is light brownish, the head is bright red from above, slightly mottled with white, since the feathers at the base have a white transverse stripe. The nape and upper back are black. The sides of the head and the stripe above the eye are white. Cheeks are brownish. A rather wide black stripe runs from the mandible to the shoulders. The middle of the back is white, sometimes with black spots or more or less clearly expressed transverse striation. Uppertail is black. The two central pairs of helmsmen are black. The outermost ones are white, with one or two black transverse stripes; the base of the inner fan is black. On the second pair of tail feathers, the dark base occupies almost half of the inner fan; on the white part of the fan, there is a transverse dark stripe or a slightly noticeable black speck. The third helmsman is black, only the tip of the inner fan and about a third of the length of the outer fan are white. Throat, craw and abdomen off-white. Weakly expressed longitudinal streaks on the sides of the body. Primary flight feathers are black with white rather large spots on the inner and outer webs. Secondary flight feathers are black with white transverse spots. The underside of the wing is white. The upperwing coverts are black. The beak is grayish-black, the legs are greenish-gray, the eyes are reddish-brown.
The adult female is similar in color to the male and differs from him in the color of the head: the upper side to the crown is white, without red.
Young ones are similar in color to adults. The underparts of the body are somewhat dirtier and more significantly speckled with longitudinal dark stripes, the black color of the plumage is more brownish. The first primary swing is longer and wider. The sex of young birds differs similarly to adult birds.
Structure and dimensions
Wing formula: IV-V-III-VI (sometimes V-IV). Body sizes and weights are presented in table 31.
|Wing length (mm)||33||85–97||92,2||27||83–97||92,4|
|Wing length (mm)||25||92–100||95,3||20||93–100||96,7|
|Tail length (mm)||32||53–62||59,5||27||53–62||58,9|
|Tail length (mm)||22||59–69||63,0||21||55–72||61,2|
|Beak length (mm)||32||13,5–17,4||15,8||27||13,5–17,3||15,3|
|Beak length (mm)||24||14,7–18,1||16,7||20||14,0–17,5||15,9|
|Nozzle length (mm)||28||13,7–17,5||15,5||21||13,5–17,5||15,6|
|Nozzle length (mm)||25||14,0–16,6||15,2||21||14,5–16,0||15,3|
|Body weight (g)||14||22,4–27,5||24,8||10||22,5–27,7||25,3|
Variability manifests itself in the ratio of the dark and light color of the upper part of the body, in the nature of the plumage pattern, in the shades of the main background of the lower part of the body and in general size. There are 10 (Howard, Moore, 1991), 13 (Stepanyan, 1975, 2003, Dickinson, 2003) and 14 (Gladkov, 1951) to 19 (Howard, Moore, 1980) subspecies, of which 6 live within the former USSR.
1.Dendrocopos minor minor
Picus minor Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Cd. 10, p. 114, Sweden.
It differs from the subspecies D. t. Kamtschatkensis in the darker underside of the body, which often has an ocher tint. White coloration on the back takes up less space. The white field on the back has a pronounced black cross pattern. Dark longitudinal streaks on the sides of the chest and abdomen are poorly developed. The black transverse stripes on the tail are more regular than those of D. m. kamtschatkensis.
In the area of the Ural ridge and the Volga-Ural interfluve, it intergrades with D. m. kamtschatkensis.
2.Dendrocopos minor kamtschatkensis
Picus kamtschatkensis Malherbe, 1861, Monogr. Picidees, 1, p. 115, tab. 26, figs. 1-3, Okhotsk.
The underparts are lighter, more pure white, rarely with a faint ocher tinge, the white coloration on the back takes up more space than that of the nominative race. The black transverse pattern on the white back area is less developed. Dark longitudinal streaks on the sides of the chest and abdomen are absent or less developed than in D. m. minor. The black transverse stripes on the tail are less regular than in D. m. minor. Individual variability is developed, especially manifested in the variation in the degree of development of white coloration on the back.
3.Dendrocopos minor immaculatus
Dendrocopos immaculatus Stejneger, 1884, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 2, p. 98, Kamchatka.
The lightest race. White on the upper side of the body occupies the greatest space, the white area on the back has no or almost no dark transverse pattern. The underside of the body is pure white, there is no dark longitudinal pattern on the sides of the chest and abdomen.
4.Dendrocopos minor amurensis
Xylocopus minor amurensis Buturlin, 1909, Zool Yearbook. muses. Acad. nauk, 13, p. 243, lower reaches of the Amur.
The underside of the body is darker than that of D. m. kamtschatkensis and slightly darker than in D. m. minor. The white field on the back has a developed black transverse pattern. The dark longitudinal streaks on the sides of the chest and abdomen are more developed than in the nominative race.
At the northern and western limits of distribution, it intergrades with D. m. kamtschatkensis.
5.Dendrocopos minor colchicus
Xylocopus minor colchicus Buturlin, 1909, Yearbook of the Zool muses. Acad. nauk, 13, p. 249, Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus, lower Kuban.
The underside of the body is darker than that of D. m. minor, with a clay-gray tint and a well-developed pattern of dark longitudinal streaks on the sides of the chest and abdomen. The white space on the back is somewhat smaller than that of D. m. minor and with a well-developed pattern of black transverse stripes.
6.Dendrocopos minor quadrifasciatus
Picus minor quadrifasciatus Radde, 1884, Ornis Caucasica, p. 315, pl. 9, figs. 5, Talysh.
The darkest race. The underparts are light brown with a developed pattern of dark longitudinal streaks. The white color on the middle upper wing coverts, characteristic of all previous races, is absent. On the white field of the back, a black transverse pattern is well developed.
Outside of Eastern Europe and North Asia, the following subspecies are usually distinguished: R. m. communitus - Britain (7), R. m. hortorum - Central Europe from France to Romania (8), R. m. buturlini - Southern Europe from Portugal to the Balkans (9), R. m. ledouci - Algeria, Tunisia (10), P. m. danfordi - Asia Minor (11), R. m. morgani - Zagros Mountains, southwestern Iran (12).
Nesting area. Eurasia from the Atlantic coast to the east to the Kolyma ridge, south to the Pacific coast, northwest Africa within the forest areas of the Tel Atlas ridge.
Figure 94. Nesting range of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker:
Subspecies: 1 - D. m. minor, 2 - D. m. kamtschatkensis, 3 - D. m. immaculatus, 4 - D. m. amurensis, 5 - D. m. colchicus, 6 - D. m. quadrifasciatus, 7 - D. m. comminutus, 8 - D. m. hortorum, 9 - D. m. buturlini, 10 - P. m. ledouci, 11 - D. m. danfordi, 12 - D. m. morgani.
Breeds throughout Western Europe to the north in Scandinavia to 69-70 ° N. South to the Mediterranean coast, the Aegean and Marmara seas, the western and northwestern coasts of the Black Sea. In the Iberian Peninsula, the distribution is local. In Great Britain, it inhabits Wales and England (Cramp, 1985).
In Southeast Asia, the southern border runs from the lake. Markakol along the Urun-gu valley, Khangai, Tola valley, Kenteyu, the southern part of the Greater Khingan, South Heilongjiang, the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Also nests on Hokkaido Island.
An isolated area of the range is located in Asia Minor - from the western coast of Asia Minor to the east to Elburs, to the south to the Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor. The range in this part is discontinuous, has a ribbon-like shape and separate nesting sites (Cramp, 1985).
In Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, nesting was recorded in the center of the Kola Peninsula, where it is widespread up to 68 ° N: its hollows were repeatedly found on the coast of the Kandalaksha Bay (Blagosklonov, 1960), and the woodpecker itself was occasionally recorded in the Lapland Nature Reserve (Vladimirskaya, 1948 ), mined on the river. Pulonga (Malyshevsky, 1962). To the north, in the Teriberka area, the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker was not recorded (Kishchinsky, 1960). Breeds in the lower reaches of the river. Onega (Korneeva et al., 1984), on the Solovetsky Islands, was recorded near Nes (Gladkov, 1951), but later was not found there (Spangenberg, Leonovich, 1960). In this area, the modern border of the area runs from the city of Arkhangelsk to the lower reaches of the Pechora (Estafiev, 1977). To the east, it nests approximately to the Arctic Circle. In the Ob valley, recorded nesting near Labyt-nangs (Danilov et al., 1984), at the mouth of the Nadym, in the Yenisei valley to the north to Angutikha (Syroechkovsky, 1960), to the valley of the middle reaches of the Lower Tunguska, in the Vilyui basin up to the 64th parallels, in the Lena valley up to the 63rd parallel (Vorobyov, 1963), on the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk up to the 61st parallel: r. Khasin, Babushkin Bay (Kishchinsky, 1968).
Figure 95. The range of the lesser spotted woodpecker in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia:
a - nesting area, b - insufficiently clarified border of the nesting area, c - fly-overs. Subspecies: 1 - D. m. minor, 2 - D. m. kamtschatkensis, 3 - D. m. immaculatus, 4 - D. m. amurensis, 5 - D. m. colchicus, 6 - D. m. quadrifasciatus.
The southern border of the area is not well understood. Breeds in Moldavia (Averin, Ganya, 1970). Further to the east, it nests in the floodplains of Savranka and Yalants (Volchanetsky, 1959), in the upper reaches of the Ingul and Ingulets, in the region of Dnepropetrovsk, Rostov region: st. Migulinskaya (Petrov, 1965), near Saratov. To the east, in the floodplain of the Urals, it nests to the south up to Budarino, flights were also noted to the south - in the Ilek floodplain. Not recorded in Kostanay region. Breeds on the right bank of the Ishim: s. Bulaevo, Suvorovka, Borovoe, etc., but not south of 52 ° N, along the right bank of the Irtysh, in the north-east of Pavlodar region, in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk, in Kalbinskiy Altai, in the vicinity of Lake Markakol (Gavrin, 1970). In Buryatia, Chita and Irkutsk regions to the south to the state border of Russia (Gagina, 1961). Inhabits the entire Ussuriysk Territory, Primorye, about. Sakhalin (Vorobyov, 1954, Gizenko, 1955, Panov, 1973).
There are two isolated areas of the range. The first is confined to the Caucasus, occupies the territory from the northern foothills of the Greater Caucasus Range in the Kuban valley to the south to Turkey and Iran (Averin, Nasimovich, 1938, Tkachenko, 1966, Kuznetsov, 1983). The second site is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Anadyr basin to the north to the 65th parallel, to the west, presumably, to the eastern foothills of the Kolyma ridge (Stepanyan, 1975). A stray specimen was recorded at Shikotan (Gizenko, 1955).
In most of its range, the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is a sedentary species. In the post-nesting time, birds migrate rather widely within the nesting area. In some years, invasions of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker are observed in the western regions of the range. In Latvia, for example, they were observed in 1970-1973. (Rute, Baumanis, 1986). The invasion of these woodpeckers was especially noticeable in 1962-1963; it covered a significant part of the forest zone of the European part of Russia (Meshkov, Uryadova, 1972) and Western Europe (Andersen-Harild et al, 1966).
During the years of invasion, the lesser spotted woodpecker is significantly inferior in number to the great spotted woodpecker. For example, in 1962 in the Pskov region in September-October, 354 individuals of the great spotted woodpecker and only 38 small spotted woodpeckers were counted from a permanent observation point, in 1963, respectively, 243 and 17 (Meshkov, Uryadova, 1972).The reasons for such massive movements of birds are not entirely clear. At least with regard to the lesser spotted woodpecker, the opinion was formed that the trophic factor is not decisive. Perhaps the lesser spotted woodpeckers are involved in the mass movement of the great spotted woodpecker that has begun.
The nesting sites of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker are mainly confined to floodplain forests: swampy alders, floodplain oak forests containing aspens, clumps of aspens and oak manes among birch forests. It adheres to these stations for the most part within the entire range. In Belarus, the main nesting sites are riparian forests and thickets of large willow in river valleys, reed birch and alder forests. In the north of the republic, it nests in swampy spruce forests with an admixture of birch, on forest burned-out areas with rotten birch trunks and stumps, in orchards, in Belovezhskaya Pushcha it also occurs on the swampy edges of pine forests (Fedyushin and Dolbik, 1967). In Latvia, it settles in sparse deciduous and mixed forests, in old gardens, parks and cemeteries (Strazds, 1983).
In the central regions of the European part of Russia, it willingly settles in deciduous and mixed forests growing in floodplains of rivers, forest streams and lakes. Most of all prefers swampy alder and wet alder-birch forests, rich in dead wood. It also nests in floodplain oak forests and separate clumps of oak forest in floodplains of rivers and along the banks of reservoirs.
In the northwest of the Caucasus, in summer, it lives along the entire forest belt of mountains to the upper border of the forest (2,000 m, Averin, Nasimovich, 1938). In Western Siberia, it nests in light deciduous forests, groves, birch manes, often in mixed forests and along river valleys. Avoids clean tall stands (Gyngazov, Milovidov, 1977). In Kazakhstan, it nests in birch and pine-birch forests. It rises into the mountains in the Southwestern Altai along river valleys up to 1700 m (Gavrin, 1970). In Yakutia, it inhabits both mixed forests and river floodplains overgrown with willow and poplar (Vorobyov, 1963), on Sakhalin - old deciduous forests in the floodplains of rivers and along mountain slopes, as well as mixed larch-birch forests (Gizenko, 1955).
During the non-nesting period, it appears in clean pine forests, orchards in villages and towns, occurs in river floodplains among tall herbaceous plants, as well as in willow thickets.
In most of the range, it is a common, not numerous species, in places it is quite numerous. In Western Estonia, in broad-leaved forests with the participation of oak, the nesting density is 0.9 pairs / km2, in a middle-aged birch-broad-leaved forest among an open raised bog - 0.4 pairs / km2 (Vilbaste, 1968), in the Cherkasy region in a broad-leaved forest - 2.7 pairs / km2 (Koval, 1979), in the Dnieper basin in floodplain forests - 2-3, in oak and ravine forests - 0.05-1.0, in pine-deciduous forests - 0.6-0, 8 pairs / km2 (Mityai, 1984, 1985). In the Belarusian Poozerie, the maximum nesting density is 0.5-0.9 pairs / km2 (Dorofeev, 1991).
The population of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is quite high in suitable habitats in the Central and Central Black Earth regions. In the Kaluga region, in small-leaved coniferous forests, its density was 2.5 pairs / km2 (But'ev, 1970), in the Moscow region - 0.4 (Ptushenko, Inozemtsev, 1968), in the Ryazan region in floodplain oak forests and swampy alder forests - 8- 12, in the Tellermanovsky forest area of the Voronezh region in a floodplain oak forest - 12 (Korolkova, 1963), in the Tambov region in an alder forest - 7-7.5, in a mixed forest - 7.5, in a birch-aspen forest - less than 1 pair / km2 (Shchegolev, 1968, 1978). In Karelia (Kivach nature reserve) in the spruce forest - 4.3, in deciduous and mixed forests - 1.8 pairs / km2 (Ivanter, 1962). Common in the Northwest Caucasus (Averin, Nasimovich, 1938). It is small in number in Bashkortostan: in pine forests - 0.05, in pine-birch - 0.1, linden-snyt'evy - 0.6, alder-nettle forests - 0.6 pairs / km2 (Chernykh, 1976). In the forests of Central Altai - 0.5, in the forest-steppe - 0.3 pairs / km2 (Ravkin et al., 1985). In the vicinity of the village. Bolshoi Kemchug of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the nesting density in the pine-deciduous forest is 0.8 pairs / km2 (Naumov, 1960), in Western Siberia in the floodplain willows of the middle taiga and in aspen forests - 4–7, in the floodplain willows of the southern taiga of the Ob region - 7, in floodplain mixed forests - 0.25 pairs / km2 (Ravkin, 1978), in Transangarie - 1 pair / km2 (Gibet, Artamoshin, 1977), in riverine willow stands. Tom-Chumysh (Salair Ridge) - 0.05 (Chunikhin, 1965), in the floodplain larch forests of the Middle Urals - 5 pairs / km2 (Shilova et al., 1963).
On Sakhalin, the nesting density sometimes reaches 15-20 pairs / km2 (Gizenko, 1955), but according to V.A. 1 km route). In South Primorye (Lazovsky Reserve) in the valley cedar-broad-leaved forest - 1.3 pairs / km2 (Laptev, 1986), in the Middle Sikhote-Alin in floodplain broad-leaved forests - 0.9, cedar-deciduous forests - 0.9, cedar - broad-leaved forests on low above-floodplain terraces - 0.8 pairs / km2 (Kuleshova, 1976), in linden-deciduous forests of Sikhote-Alin - 0.1-1.3 pairs / km2 (Nazarenko, 1971), in the west. "Kedrovaya Pad" in black-fir-broad-leaved forests - 0.5-0.8, cedar-broad-leaved forests - 0.3, floodplain forests of the lower reaches of rivers - 5, floodplain forests of upper reaches of rivers - 2.3 pairs / km2 (Panov, 1973, Nazarenko, 1984), in the coniferous-deciduous forests of the Ussuriysky reserve - 0.5-4.8 pairs / km2 (Nazarenko, 1984). In the Parapolsky Valley in Kamchatka, the nesting density is 3 pairs / km2 (Lobkov, 1983).
In the western part of the range it is quite common, although in some countries (Spain, Denmark, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Tunisia, Algeria) it is rare. In England, the total number is estimated at 5,000-10,000 pairs, in France - 1,000-10,000 pairs, in Belgium - about 350 pairs (650 pairs in 1981), in Luxembourg - about 180 pairs, in the Netherlands in 1977 - 1,000. –2,500 pairs, in Denmark less than 10 pairs, in Sweden 20,000 pairs, in Finland over 3,000 pairs (Cramp 1985).
Economic value, security
The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker has no direct economic value. It is believed that it can be beneficial in forestry by destroying forest pests. Gouging hollows annually plays a significant role in increasing the capacity of land for small hollow-nesting birds: great tit, blue tit, pied flycatcher, etc.
It is listed in the Red Data Books of North Ossetia and Buryatia; in most regions, special protection measures are not provided.
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