Status. Category 1 breeding migratory endangered species
Status in Russia and adjacent regions. The species is included in the regional Red Data Books of Kursk (category 2) and Lipetsk (4) regions.
Northwest Africa, South. Europe, Southwest Asia. In European Russia, the northern border of the nesting area runs along the Kursk, Voronezh and Saratov regions. . In the middle of the twentieth century. belonged to the few nesting species of the Voronezh region.
It was more often found in the steppe regions, although the find of the nest in 1945 and near Voronezh is known. In the early 60s. and later nested in the env. KhGPZ, where it was quite common [2, 5]. In the early 80s. noted in the steppe areas near the village. Kantemirovka.
At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of this century, the species on the territory of the region could not be found, however, there is survey information about the reproduction of a small group of birds in the Khokholsky district.
A large lark the size of a starling, the wings are relatively wide and long. Body weight 5463 g, total length 1922 cm, wing 11.013.5 cm. Dorsal side brownish-gray with numerous ocher and dark streaks. The inner part of the wings is dark, which is clearly visible in flight, along their edges there is a light border.
The ventral side is white, there are large black spots on the sides of the goiter. Sings in the air, sometimes sitting on the ground or on a bush. It differs from the lark in its large size, the presence of black spots on the goiter, the dark underside of the wings, and a more complex and sonorous song.
Features of biology and ecology.
Arrives from wintering grounds in March, approximately at the same time as the skylark. In the southern regions he lives sedentary. Inhabits the preserved areas of virgin steppes, fallow lands, wheat crops. In optimal habitats of the southern steppes, it often has a very high nesting population density of up to 2 pairs / ha.
The nest is built on the ground in a shallow hole, hiding it under the grass. The laying period lasts from April to early June. In a full clutch there are 3 to 6, more often 45 eggs of an off-white color with numerous greenish-brown spots.
The incubation period lasts 16 days, only the female incubates the clutch. Chicks stay in the nest for about 10 days and leave it, not yet being able to fly. In the second half of summer and autumn, steppe larks gather in large flocks, wandering in feeding places.
In summer it feeds mainly on insects, including large locusts, less often on seeds. In autumn, it completely switches to plant feed: seeds of wild grasses, grains of cultivated cereals, vegetative parts of plants.
The number and tendencies of its change. Due to the marginal position of the area in the Voronezh region. the species was not numerous here before. From about the end of the 80s. XX century. the process of population decline began, leading to the almost complete disappearance of birds.
A strong decline in numbers also occurred in the south of Rostov oblast, where conditions for breeding are more suitable. So, in the northern Sholokhovsky and Verkhnedonsky districts in 1982, the steppe lark was common, and at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. almost never met.
Limiting factors. A complex of unfavorable factors, apparently, acted on the decrease in the number: a high pasture load on the steppe plots, the chemicalization of agriculture, and a humidification of the climate.
Adopted and necessary security measures. On the territory of the Voronezh region. no special security measures were taken. It is required to organize research to clarify the current state of the species in the area, identify and protect nesting habitats.
Sources of information: Red Data Book of the Voronezh Region 1. Volchanetsky, 1954. 2. Ryabov, 1962. 3. Barabash-Nikiforov, 1963. 4. Stepanyan, 1978.5. Zolotarev, 1995b. 6. Belik, 2000. 7. Belik, 2004b. 8. Vengerov, 2005.9. Vorobiev I.I. (oral communication). Compiled by P. D. Vengerov, drawing: A. A. Mosalov.
# 1 kubmab
Steppe Lark or Jurbai (Melanocorypha calandra)
Dimensions and structure... Like all steppe larks. The wings are long. The wing formula is 1> 2> 3, the 4th feather is much shorter than the previous ones, the abortive (actually the 1st) flight feather is about 5-10 mm in length, but clearly visible. The posterior secondary flight feathers are not elongated (or only slightly elongated). Legs strong, hind toe claw long and straight (or slightly curved). Tail trimming of the steppe lark straight. The body length of males (15) 190-220, females (3) 190-210, on average 205.3 and 200 mm, the span of males (11) 314-440, females (3) 380-385, on average 410.8 and 383 mm.
The wing length of males (49) 125.5-135, females (14) 113-122, on average 130.6 and 116.6 mm. Tail length 60-65 mm, beak 15-17 mm. The weight of males (4) 54.5-63.3, on average 59.8 g, females (1) 61 g.
Field signs... The Steppe Lark is large, from a starling and much larger than the field lark. The figure is stocky, massive. The dress is "lark", on the sides of the goiter along a large black spot, which sometimes close. Underparts are white, slightly spotted. The wings are wide, their lining is noticeably dark, and the hind edge has a white border, which is especially noticeable during takeoff. The beak is thick and light. Found in steppes and fields. Sometimes he sings on the ground or sitting on a bush, but more often - flying at a height of up to 10 m, describing smooth arcs, then rises upward like a lark and continues to sing. The song is more complex and sonorous than that of the lark. One can often hear a sonorous "chrrr" and a clear, whistling "clear" in it. Imitates the voices of many birds: other larks, barn swallow, badger warbler, linnet, herbalist, gopher whistle, various random sounds.
Coloration... The main coloration of the dorsal side is brownish-gray. The back of the neck, the front of the back and the shoulders have feathers with light buffy edges and dark trunks.
In the upper tail, the dark trunks are poorly expressed. Lesser wing coverts are grayish brown, medium and large ones are dark brown with light, fresh reddish or buffy edges. The ends of the secondary flight feathers are with white spots. The outer tail feathers are white with brown bases of the inner webs, the second pair from the margin with wide white edges, the rest with white spots, the middle pairs are monochrome brown. The ventral side of the European steppe lark is white. The sides of the head are grayish-brown, with a light eyebrow above the eyes. On the sides of the goiter along a large black spot. Craw and upper breast with grayish and dark brown streaks. The sides are grayish, the underwings are gray with whitish edges. The rainbow is light brown. The bill and tarsi are pale brown.
Females are colored similarly to males.
Juveniles in nesting plumage are yellowish-brown with light edges of feathers and markings on dark areas of large feathers. The bottom is creamy white with dark streaks on the sides of the crop and breast.
Area... European and African part of the species range, Asia Minor, western Iran. In the USSR - Ukraine to Kiev, Poltava and Kharkov to the north, Voroshilovgrad region, the lower Don steppes, the Lower Volga and Trans-Volga regions, northwestern Kazakhstan, Crimea, the Caucasus.
Nature of stay... In the southern regions of the range, the steppe lark settled. It flies here in winter from the northern regions, but even there it sometimes keeps in winter in nomadic flocks. However, in the southern regions, obviously, a significant part of the local larks fly out of the country for the winter. Borovikov (1907) once in the fall observed from a steamer the flight of large flocks of Steppe Larks across the Sea of Azov.
Dates... A pronounced spring arrival was recorded in the Kherson steppes in early March. Larks hibernating here lead a nomadic lifestyle, often disappearing for a long time and returning again. Therefore, spring arrivals can be difficult to notice in a timely manner. In the Izyum district of the Kharkiv region. Averin (1910) observed the arrival of the steppe lark together with the field lark at the end of February. To the North. Boehme (1934) observed it usually at the beginning of March, sometimes at the beginning of February. In the Azov region, the main mass leaves with the onset of cold weather - in November. Many stay over the winter. In a small number, this lark occurs on the migration near Batumi, also together with the skylark, on March 22-23 and September 16-22.
Habitat... The steppe lark lives in open steppe areas with a well-developed herbaceous cover, readily settles in breads.
In the area of Askania-Nova, the steppe lark most often nests on virgin grass-forb steppe, especially where there is a lot of Aster villosus, under the bushes of which it hides its nests. Only at the end of summer does he wander in flocks in the hayfields. According to our observations, on the Sivash it is numerous among the continuous thickets of viviparous bluegrass. In the Pavlograd region of the Dnepropetrovsk region. (Walch, 1899) it also prefers virgin steppe areas, but sometimes it nests in the toloks and in the grain. In the area of the Velikoanadolsky forest in the Stalin region. (Volchanetsky, 1940, 1950) it is very common in winter and spring crops together with the lark. Here he does not avoid the immediate vicinity of the forest. However, in the fields between the shelter belts at the Mariupol forestry station, it is rare and only in the largest areas. It is quite common, according to our observations, on breads between young forest belts, even where they are often located, as at the Partizansky forestry point of the Genichesky district of the Kherson region. (Volchanetsky, 1952). In Crimea, he prefers slightly saline areas of the steppe with a predominance of wormwood. In the Pro-Val steppe, Voroshilovgrad region. settles together with the skylark on rich grasses and forbs, but prefers deposits with a thin and not continuous herbaceous cover (Volchanetsky, 1950). In the North Caucasus, he settles on clay and sandy steppes (Boehme, 1925). In the area of the lake. Elton in the Trans-Volga region, the steppe lark prefers white wormwood-fescue-feather grass steppes, as well as rich forbs on old fallows (Volchanetsky, Lisetsky and Kapralova, 1950). In the area of the Kamysh-Samara lakes in the Volga-Ural steppe of western Kazakhstan, it also nests in the wormwood-fescue steppe and along dry and flooded meadows, leaving with them along the floods of lakes into the depths of Ryn-Peskov (Volchanetsky, 1937). In the Aral-Caspian steppes, at least in their western part, the steppe lark, according to Bostanzhoglo (1911), easily reconciles with the scarce vegetation of the coastal steppes, but avoids bare bald patches of solonetzic clay soil.
Food... Like other larks, in the summer, it almost completely switches to animal food. It feeds, running on the ground and pecking at what it gets on the ground and on the grass. Sometimes he flies up and examines the tops of the bushes. Its massive beak is often covered with mud. Obviously, he gets insect larvae from the soil. With its beak, it can break through the frozen crust of snow and extract grass seeds from under it (Boehme). This lark eats larger insects - locusts (Chortippus, Calliptamus), copra (Copris lunaris), large blips (Blaps), etc. Of the other insects, the steppe lark eats most of all weevils (Othiorhhynchus, Ptochus porcellus, Eusomus beckeri, Folicodes trivialis, Polydrosus, flypera, Kraatzi, Baris artemisiae, Psallidium maxillosum, Chlorophanus micans, alb), darkling beetle (Gonocephalus pusillus), leaf beetles (Labidostomus beckeri, Chrysomela marginata), caryopses (Spermophagus sericeus), bread beetles (Anisoplia segetum), deer (Epicometis hirta), in addition, - flies, wasps, wasps, bees, ants and others, as well as spiders. More often than other larks, it eats Orthoptera - their composition is more diverse. There are few bugs, few leaf beetles, lamellar beetles, ants and caterpillars.
Vegetable food in summer is no more than 10%. These are seeds of various wild plants, green parts of viviparous bluegrass, grains of cultivated cereals. In the fall, with the disappearance of insects, the lark switches to plant food. Pachossky (1909) describes how one day a flock of steppe larks on a city pasture near Kherson ate all the sprouts of viviparous bluegrass on bald patches uncovered with snow and where the snow lay in a thin layer. The steppe lark visits the water hole quite regularly. So, in the Elton steppe, they arrive, however, much less often than small and gray larks, and to the fresh pond and to the salty river Smoroda. Most often they arrive either at noon, or before 10 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm.
Reproduction... Singing and current flight from early March to late June, in some places to mid-July. The first clutches were noted by Borovikov near Zhdanov at the end of March. Clutches are also found until mid-June, obviously the latter. In the Izyum district of the Kharkiv region. Averin (1910) found the first clutches also at the end of March. In the Aral-Caspian steppes, begins to nest in early April (Bostanzhoglo, 1911), when wormwood turns green.
The nest, like that of other larks, settles in a hole under a bush of grass, is well camouflaged and shaded. A nest is built from dry stalks and leaves of cereals and thin roots. The inner layer, as usual, consists of thinner materials. Sometimes the nest is located in a pile of dry horse droppings (Lisetsky). In a clutch there are most often 4-5 eggs, sometimes 3, less often - 6. Eggs are rather dark, off-white or greenish main background with numerous brownish or olive, somewhat blurred spots, condensed towards the blunt end.
Egg sizes: 26.8-27.1x18.9-19.2 mm or the smallest - 22.8-24.0x17.2-18.0 mm, on average 24.3x17.0 mm. Weight 2.39 g.
One female incubates for 16 days. Feeding in the nest lasts about 10 days.
The chicks that have just left the nest are found from the second half of May to the end of July. At the same time, already at the end of July, decent nomadic flocks appear, feeding on the steppes, stubble, mowing and roads together with other larks. In August, there are large flocks of birds of 200 and more. The migrations continue until late autumn. Often they add up to a real autumn span. Such migratory flocks are also found in the very south of the range. Autumn nomadic flocks are very noisy. In good weather, the larks sing and take off with a song, like in spring.
Molting... Like other larks, it occurs once a year in adults, in August-September. Chicks have an incomplete downy outfit, which is replaced in the nest by the first plumage, which in turn is replaced by the first adult outfit by autumn.
Economic value... With its high abundance, the steppe lark is undoubtedly beneficial in the destruction of many harmful insects in fields, grazing lands, and other grassy areas that can serve as reservations for harmful insects. On the other hand, there are indications (Reshetnik, 1937) that the seeds of weeds do not lose their germination after passing through the intestines of a lark. Thus, larks can serve as weed spreaders. When it comes to eating cereal grains, there is no doubt that larks mostly pick up carrion and razron. However, unripe grain was also found in their stomachs. Reshetnik, for example, directly indicates that the steppe lark "actively harvests soft grain of wheat." No one, however, observed the larks topple or bend the stalks of cereals to the ground and peck out the grain. Apparently, this is possible only with very low-growing loaves or if the loaves have been previously crushed by someone. A lark cannot do any serious harm in this way. Nor were there any indications that larks peck at the grain from the ears cut off.
Number... The Steppe Lark is a massive "landscape" bird in suitable biotopes. It settles, like the field lark, at 100-50 m of a pair from a pair - 1-2 pairs per 1 ha. Closer to the northern border of the range (from Kalmykov in the Urals and Stalingrad), it is rare.
Source: Birds of the Soviet Union. G. P. Dementyev, N. A. Gladkov, A. M. Sudilovskaya, E. P. Spangerberg, L. B. Boehme, I. B. Volchanetsky, M. A. Voinstvensky, N. N. Gorchakovskaya, M. N. Korelov, A. K. Rustamov. Moscow - 1955
Despite the fact that larks are somewhat larger than sparrows, they are relatively small birds, since they can weigh no more than 70 grams, and some species even weigh about 2 and a half dozen grams. The length of the body from head to tail, depending on the species, is in the range of 10-21 centimeters. If we compare the size of the body and the size of the legs, then the latter seem disproportionate, small and thin, but they are quite strong. The head is relatively large, as is the beak, which has a noticeable curvature.
Interesting to know! Due to the uniqueness and structure of the body, larks fly fast enough. Such swiftness is possible thanks to the wide wings and short tail.
In case of danger to his life, the lark falls like a stone and tries to hide among the tall grass. Slavic mythology says that these birds are the harbingers of a new harvest. Popular beliefs say that the singing of these birds, during periods of drought, can cause rain. People believed in the mythical capabilities of the bird, so they made various figurines and distributed them to their compatriots as a symbol of a rich harvest.
Despite the singing talent, this bird has a very inconspicuous and modest appearance. This is due to the fact that the lark lives in an open area, on the surface of the earth. Therefore, its color is associated with the color of the soil. The color of the plumage, both in males and females, is no different, so it is not at all easy to distinguish them. As for young individuals, their plumage color is more expressive. The chest area is lighter than the rest of the body. Experts identify about 78 species of larks, which differ in plumage color. Larks live on almost all continents of our Planet.
Character and lifestyle
When spring comes and the last frosts recede, you can hear the singing of a lark, which indicates that spring has come into its own. Interestingly, larks sing most excitingly while in flight. Most often, the song of a lark can be heard early in the morning or in the evening. It should be noted that each individual has its own color of voice and its timbre. The birds are so talented that they copy the singing of their relatives, other birds and even human speech, but this requires a lot of effort.
Larks are migratory birds and they winter in warm countries. If the winter is warm, then the lark can be seen in its nest as early as February / March. When the winter cold begins to set in, these birds in whole flocks go to warm regions, where it is warm and there is enough food. Larks prefer to live in areas where cereals and a lot of tall grass grow, as well as in steppe conditions where they feel quite comfortable, including near farmland. These birds do not like forests, while they are found in mountainous terrain, but in open areas.
These birds may not migrate from their homes, if warm and sufficient food. The nest of a lark can be under the hairy aster, under the branches of wormwood, under the bluegrass.
They often set up their nests in horse manure or under stones. Unlike other birds, larks do not begin nesting until the grass has grown so that the nest can be safely hidden. That is, the height of the grass plays a very important role in finding a place to nest.
An important point! Larks are considered to be quite caring, responsible and fearless parents. This mainly concerns the skylarks that live in Europe. The female will not get up from the clutch of eggs if a person is nearby.
After arranging the nest, the female begins to lay eggs, after which she begins to incubate the eggs. During this period, the lark, although it sings, does not rise high above the ground. It is at the height that the song of the lark sounds more interesting and attractive.
Starting from the middle of summer, the song of a lark can be heard, but rarely, since during this period the birds are busy raising the offspring that has been born. As soon as the offspring gets on the wing, the female lays eggs again to raise new offspring.
Skylark (Alauda arvensis)
This species grows in length up to 18 centimeters, gaining weight up to 40 grams. The body of the bird is quite dense, and the beak is characterized by a conical shape. Although it seems that the bird is clumsy, it feels comfortable not only in the air, but also on the ground, where it finds food for itself. The chest area and sides are brownish-rusty. There are characteristic spurs on the paws, resembling a detached claw in appearance. This species is widespread in northern Africa, as well as in the Paleoarctic.
Finch Lark (Ammomanes deserti)
The main color of the plumage of this species is sandy-gray, with ebb tints on the belly in ocher shades. The body length of these birds is about 17 and a half centimeters with a weight of about 30 grams. This species is found in the desert territories of North Africa, stretching from Algeria to the shores of the Red Sea. These birds prefer to settle in semi-desert conditions, in mountainous terrain, as well as on clay and rocky plains.
An important fact! This species is distinguished by the fact that it successfully resists the scorching rays of the sun of the Sahara Desert.
Wood lark (Lullula arborea)
Wood larks are similar to the field larks, but they are smaller in size. You can often see how they briskly run on the ground in search of food. These birds live almost throughout Europe, as well as in the north-west of the African continent. They build their nests at the foot of large trees, hiding in tall grass, as well as among the protruding root system. This lark is often referred to as the Whirligig, as it dives briskly over the treetops, making unique sounds.
Lesser Lark (Calandrella brachydactyla)
It is therefore called small because it is distinguished by its elegance and small size, compared to other species. The main color does not differ in brightness, and on the sides, if you look closely, you can see spots of dark shades. This species lives on the territory of the Euro-Asian continent.
The main color of such birds always corresponds to their natural habitat. These birds are found in the waterless expanses of Africa and Arabia. They can also be found in the western regions of India and Afghanistan. It is considered the largest representative of the lark family, as it grows in length up to 25 centimeters. The limbs of this species are relatively short, and the beak is curved downward. The desert lark builds its nests in the sand, making a small depression, and also covering it from all sides with small twigs and dry grass.
It is considered the closest relative of the field lark, since it has similarities, both in plumage color and in lifestyle. The difference is that these larks, in comparison with the larks, sing, soaring up almost in a straight line, and when they finish their "concerts", they fall like a stone. The skylark descends to the ground in a spiral.
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)
Elongated feathers grow on the sides of the parietal region of the lark's head, which resembles horns. This is especially noticeable when the birds reach mature age. These feathers come in a variety of colors.
The back area is painted in grayish tones with a pink tint, and the chest area is much lighter, with the presence of white shades. A characteristic difference is the fact that birds have something like a "black mask". There are other representatives of the species, such as the singing lark, crested, black, etc.
Lark - a harbinger of spring
Lark - one of the most famous singing representatives of birds. He pleases five continents with spring trills. A space object is named in his honor: the asteroid Alauda (translated from Latin: lark).
Lifestyle and habitat
Favorite habitat: steppe regions, fields with low grass, agricultural land. As forests are deforested and new arable fields are created, the area expands.
The only species associated with the forest is wood lark... He settled in open woodlands, forest clearings, forest edges, glades, warmed by the sun. This bird avoids forest thickets, massifs overgrown with tall trees.
What bird is the lark: migratory or wintering? Most birds are characterized by seasonal migration, relocation from wintering grounds to their homeland, but some populations nest in rather warm regions. They refuse to fly. This happens in the southern Caucasus, southern Europe.
The statement that lark bird migratory, valid for the entire family as a whole. It is formulated from populations that breed in areas with harsh winters. With the onset of autumn cold weather, all birds nesting north of (approximately) fiftieth latitude, get up on the wing and in flocks of medium size go to the Mediterranean Sea, to northern Africa, to Central Asia.
In early spring, flocks of songbirds return from wintering grounds. The arrival of larks among many peoples in Europe, including Russia, is so closely associated with spring that buns called larks are baked in March. These are simple culinary products that vaguely resemble birds with raisins instead of eyes.
Upon returning to the nesting sites, the males begin to sing, the mating season begins for the birds. Lark songs can be described as a continuous series of melodic and full-sounding trills. Larks often demonstrate their ability to imitate other birds. Larks sing in flight and from the ground.
The most spectacular is the vertical flight accompanied by singing. Having reached a height of 100-300 meters, the lark hovers for a few minutes. Then, gradually, without interrupting the singing, it descends. Or, having fallen silent, it descends, almost falls, to the ground.
This bird has many enemies. Especially during the breeding period. Hedgehogs, snakes, small and medium-sized predators are ready to destroy the nest, the only protection of which is camouflage. For adults, birds of prey are very dangerous. Sparrowhawks, harriers, hobbyists, and other falconry grab larks on the fly.
Lark - songbird... Therefore, they have long been trying to keep her in captivity. But fearfulness and nondescriptness have led to the fact that in our country you can hear a lark only in nature.
The Chinese are fond of keeping birds in cages. They have accumulated a lot of experience not only in keeping, but also in holding songbird competitions. Of all the species, the Mongolian lark is more common in Chinese homes.
Insects and grains are the staple of a lark's diet. Food is obtained by pecking insects and grains from the ground or from plants, from the height of their own growth. Various beetles are used. In addition to coleoptera, larks do not disdain Orthoptera, wingless.
That is, everyone who can be caught up with whom their beak and muscular stomach can handle. Since food is obtained only on foot, the lark gets grains that are already fallen or low-growing. Unfortunately, these little songbirds are food themselves.
Not just for predators. In the south of France, in Italy, in Cyprus, delicious dishes are traditionally prepared from them. They are stewed, fried, used as a filling in meat pies. Lark tongues are considered an exquisite treat worthy of crowned persons. This is the fate not only of larks, but of many migratory birds.
Reproduction and life expectancy
Larks pair up in early spring. After that, the males are engaged in morning singing. This is part of the marriage ritual. Demonstration of one's own attractiveness and designation of the nesting territory, the inviolability of which is strictly monitored.
Wood lark nest
Bird pairs settle rather close to each other. One hectare can have 1-3 nests. Therefore, the reasons for clashes appear constantly. The fighting is pretty fierce. There are no rules or spectacular dueling actions. Sheer confusion, as a result of which the border violator retreats. Nobody gets any significant injuries.
Females are looking for a place to nest. Lark's nest - this is a depression in the ground, a hole in a shaded and hidden place. The bowl-shaped bottom of the nest is laid out with dry grass, feathers and horsehair. When the nest is ready, mating occurs.
In a clutch, there are usually 4-7 small eggs of brown or yellow-green color, covered with spots of various shades. Females are engaged in incubation. Masking is the main way to preserve the nest. Birds fly away or run away only when they clearly show themselves. After eliminating the hazard, they return to the nest.
If the clutch dies due to the actions of humans or predators, eggs are laid again. After 12-15 days, blind, downy chicks appear. Their parents actively feed them with insects. They grow and develop very quickly. After 7-8 days, they can leave the nest for a short time, after 13-14 days they begin to try themselves in flight.
At the age of one month, the chicks begin to feed on their own. There is a transition from protein to vegetable nutrition, insects are replaced by grains. At the same time, the first complete molt occurs. The feathery outfit becomes the same as that of adult birds.
Chicks and female forest lark
Rapid development of chicks is a natural way to preserve the population. For the same reason, larks instead of the lost ones make new clutches, and are not limited to one brood. During the season, a family of larks can make 2-3 clutches and successfully raise offspring.
Larks have a short life: 5-6 years. Ornithologists claim that when kept in an aviary, they can safely survive for 10 years. The Lark has found its prominent place in legends, myths and literary works. He always acts as a harbinger of a new life.