Small, quail-sized bird, leading a secretive lifestyle. The legs are three-toed, with rounded black spots on the sides, shoulders and back. The general color is brownish-gray with a reddish goiter. Females are brighter than males. Chicks are grayish-buffy with black and brown stripes.
In case of danger, it takes off reluctantly, silently (unlike the quail) and sits down, flying a short distance low above the ground.
Inhabits South Primorye, the Middle Amur valley and, possibly, in Transbaikalia, is quite rare everywhere.
It nests in dry meadows with thickets of bushes. In clutch there are 4 white eggs with brown specks. Males incubate eggs and breed chicks.
Sources of information
Boehme R.L., Dinets V.L., Flint V.E., Cherenkov A.E. Birds. Encyclopedia of the Nature of Russia (under the general editorship of VE Flint). - M .: 1998.
Three-finger, or three-finger, are a family of birds of the order Charadriiformes, where they form a separate suborder. There are only two genera in the family: threefinger and lark threefinger.
In three-feathers, polyandry is observed: the female mates with several males. All care for the offspring falls on the male - he incubates the clutch and takes care of the offspring. The nest is a hole in the ground with a small lining of dry stems and leaves of herbaceous plants under the cover of bunches of grass. At this time, the female begins to mate again, mates with another male, lays the second clutch, which he begins to incubate. One female can lay up to 3 - 5 clutches per season. After laying aside all the clutches, the females gather in small flocks and wander. Males incubate for 12-13 days, then take care of the brood on their own. At the age of 7 - 10 days, the chicks begin to feed themselves. In 25 - 28 days after hatching, the chicks fly well and become completely independent. In the tropics, in some species, juveniles become sexually mature at the age of 4-5 months.
4. Range and habitat
Representatives of the family are distributed mainly in the warm parts of the Old World. Three species live in sub-Saharan Africa, one species on the island of Madagascar, five in southern and eastern Asia, and eight in the Australian Ocean region. The spotted threefold Turnix tanki is the only species found in Europe and Russia. The range of the species covers Transbaikalia, Primorye and China up to Burma and India. Three-fingerstrips inhabit dry steppes, forb meadows covered with low and sparse herbaceous vegetation, and shrubs with individual trees on plain and hilly areas, on gentle slopes. They prefer dry places.
5. Classification and taxonomy
Previously, the family was included in the order of the crane-like or were allocated to a separate order of the three-finned Turniciformes. According to the Sibley-Alqvist classification, the group was divided into the detachment of the triplet-like Turniciformes. However, the data of morphological and genetic studies indicate that three-fingers belong to the Charadriiformes charadriiformes.
The family is represented by the monotypic genus Ortyxelos and the genus Turnix with 16 species:
- African threefold Turnix sylvatica
- Cape threefold Turnix hottentotta
- Turnix castanota chestnut-back threefold
- Madagascar threefinger Turnix nigricollis
- Turnix suscitator striped threefold
- Genus Threefinger Genus Turnix
- Turnix worcesteri
- Painted threefold Turnix varia
- Small threefinger Turnix velox
- Red-back threefold Turnix maculosa
- Sumbian threefold Turnix everetti
- Big threefinger Turnix ocellata
- Spotted threefold Turnix tanki
- Turnix olivii
- Black-breasted threefinger Turnix melanogaster
- Turnix pyrrhothorax red-breasted threefold
- Lark trefoil Ortyxelos meiffrenii
- Genus Lark Trefoil Ortyxelos
Spotted three-fingers (Turnix tanki) are migratory birds. They are found in Southeast Asia, in particular in India, Myanmar and China, where they can lead a sedentary lifestyle. These birds live in fields, river valleys, meadows and other open spaces. They feed on seeds of cereals and small insects. In the coloration of males, buffy streaks are noticeable on the back, the underside of the neck and craw are rusty-red. The female has a grayish-brown back with blackish streaks. It is curious that during mating games the female, and not the male, behaves more actively. She runs around the calmer gentleman, her tail spread and her feathers fluffed up.
Nest is a small indentation in the ground; there are usually 4 eggs in a clutch. They are white with brownish gray streaks. It is curious what the male is incubating. The spotted three-finger in Russia is found in Transbaikalia and on the territory of Primorye.