Bird Families

Little Edystoma / Oedistoma iliolophus


Vater papilla has an oval shape, is projected into the lumen of the duodenum on its posterior inner wall, sometimes near the middle segment of the descending part of the duodenum. Less often, it can be located distal, closer to the lower horizontal part of the duodenum. Typically, the distance from the pyloric region to the greater duodenal papilla is 10 cm. It can be located closer to the pylorus if the common bile duct flows into the proximal half of the descending part of the duodenum. Even less often, the duodenal papilla opens into the initial part of the duodenum. In patients with duodenal ulcer or postbulbar ulcer penetrating into the pancreas, as a result of fibrous contraction of the duodenum, the duodenal papilla may be dangerously close to the pyloric region, which must be remembered during gastric resection.

Duodenal papilla from above it is covered with the mucous membrane of the duodenum, and its lumen is lined with the mucous membrane of the common bile duct. Two mucous membranes meet at the mouth of the papilla. At its upper border, the duodenal papilla is usually partially covered with a transverse fold, which gives the impression of a cornice. Less commonly, under the papilla there is a vertical fold of the mucous membrane of the duodenum, which, together with the previously mentioned transverse fold, forms the letter "T". The common bile duct flows into the upper part of the duodenal papilla, and the pancreatic duct - from its inner side, in the direction of 4, 5 or 6 o'clock.

More than 60% of cases duodenal papilla it is easy to detect: it can be enlarged and protrude into the lumen of the duodenum, its presence can also be indicated by tension or the presence of folds located in the form of the letter "T". Thanks to our fibrous and muscle fibers, it can be detected by palpation at a denser consistency. In the absence of these factors or in cases where it is completely covered with mucosal folds, the large duodenal papilla is not easy to find. To detect the large duodenal papilla, a longitudinal incision is made in the descending part of the duodenum. It starts from the middle of the descending part and continues in the distal direction, where the duodenal papilla is usually found.

Visual inspection should be supplemented by palpation, passing the finger posteromedially along the descending part of the duodenum. You can often feel a small oval mound, which is denser than the folds of the duodenum. During the revision, it is necessary to avoid excessive stretching of the duodenum, as this deforms and smoothes its folds. The transverse fold, present in some cases, forms, as it were, a visor over the papilla, which can completely cover and hide it. If the gallbladder is not removed and the duodenal papilla cannot be found, it can be identified by gently squeezing the gallbladder, which will cause a visible flow of bile through the papilla. If the gallbladder has previously been removed, there is another possibility: you need to enter an isotonic solution, catheter or dilator through the cystic duct or supraduodenal choledochotomy opening. The presence of a peripapillary diverticulum in the duodenum can create additional difficulties in detecting a large duodenal papilla. The papilla is easy to identify endoscopically, and an experienced endoscopist can quickly catheterize the ampoule and perform a papillotomy.

Surgical anatomy of the sphincter of Oddi.

Currently, it is generally accepted description of the sphincter of Oddiby Boyden (2-5). Boyden described four groups of muscle fibers:
1. The upper sphincter of the common bile duct.
2. The lower sphincter of the common bile duct.
3. Sphincter of the pancreatic duct.
4. Sphincter of the great duodenal papilla. Upper sphincter fibers are not always found, and lower sphincter fibers are not all circular.

Muscle fibers pancreatic duct sphincter present in only 20% of cases and are rarely circular. Boyden argues that the Oddi sphincter is embryologically and functionally distinct from the muscle fibers of the duodenum. Some authors are of the opinion that there is a relationship. leading to a functional interaction between the muscle fibers of the Oddi sphincter and the same fibers in the duodenum. The structure of the sphincter can be different depending on the way the common bile duct is connected to the pancreatic duct. There are also bundles of longitudinal fibers that connect both ducts, which, in turn, are connected with the muscle fibers of the duodenum. In the sphincter there are other fibers, called reinforcing fibers, coming from the muscle fibers of the duodenum itself to the longitudinal fibers.

Kinematocholangiographic, manometric and electromyographic studies confirm the synchronous work of muscle sphincter fibers of Oddi and the duodenum. Relaxation of the Oddi sphincter and the adjacent duodenal musculature occurs synchronously, contraction also occurs at the same time. It was found that the Oddi sphincter opens from top to bottom and closes from bottom to top. These contraction-relaxation-contraction cycles are initiated by the presence of food in the duodenum, the injection of cholecystokinin, or the passage of the duodenal peristaltic wave through the sphincter zone. This sequence is known as duodenal sphincter synergism.

Melanocharitidae. Long-tailed fruit eater Melanocharis longicauda Salvadori 1876 Dark fruit eater Melanocharis arfakiana Finsch 1900 Melanocharis crassirostris Sa ..


  • Long-tailed fruit eater Melanocharis longicauda Salvadori 1876
  • Dark fruit eater Melanocharis arfakiana Finsch 1900
  • Melanocharis crassirostris Salvadori 1876
  • Fruit eaters Melanocharis Sclater, 1858
  • Magpie fruit eater Melanocharis versteri Finsch 1876
  • Black fruit eater Melanocharis nigra Lesson 1830
  • Pied-bellied fruit eater Melanocharis striativentris Salvadori 1894
  • Edystomas Oedistoma Salvadori, 1876
  • Small edystoma Oedistoma iliolophum, Toxorhamphus iliolophus Salvadori 1876
  • Little edystoma Oedistoma pygmaeum Salvadori 1876
  • Long-billed honey suckers Toxorhamphus Stresemann, 1914
  • Gray-throated long-billed honey sucker Toxorhamphus poliopterus Sharpe 1882
  • Yellow-bellied long-billed honey sucker Toxorhamphus novaeguineae Lesson 1827
  • it was determined that the closest relatives of red-faced nuthatches are Melanocharitidae and whistler Pachycephalidae Therefore, according to the Sibley-Alqvist classification
  • Shrike Waxwing Tanager Thymelia Wagtail Flowering Cystolic Bristle Shrike Melanocharitidae Paramythiidae Ptilogonatidae
  • Shrike Hypocoliidae Corpiaceae Icteridae Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae Mockingbirds Mimidae Mohoidae Wagtails Motacillidae Flycatchers

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Famlia Melanocharitidae. Famlia Paramythiidae. Famlia Passeridae. Subfamlia Motacillinae. Subfamlia Prunellinae Subfamlia Ploceinae. Famlia Estrildidae. Order Not assigned 178 families. The site provides a variety of information about domestic and wild animals: species, care, maintenance, feeding, treatment. And also fairy tales for.

Birds of the passerine order are passerine representatives.

The family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae includes genera of small birds from New Guinea and Indonesia, which previously belonged to the family. Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae Zoological Forum. Melanocharitidae is a family of birds of the Passeriformes order. Sparrow-like. Melanotus Melanophila Melanocallis Melanotus castanipes Melanotinae Melanoxanthus Melitoma Melanocharitidae Melitomella Melanoblossidae.

Presentation on the topic: Morpho functional features.

Wagtail Motacillidae, Accentorids Prunellidae, Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae, Dwarf honey badgers Paramythiidae ,. Phylogeny and classification of passerine birds. Book: Meghnad Saha. Book: Meillerwagen. Book: Melaleuca. Book: Melanocharitidae. Book: Meliobba. Book: Mellified man. Book: Melvyn Bragg. Family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae. Family: Melanocharitidae. Genus. Melanocharis. 557876. Club of People and Birds. FORUMS Knowledge base navigator. Melanocharitidae Family Melanocharitidae, Fruit eaters, Black berry beetles, Family Melanocharitidae. Representative of the Family Meliphagidae. Pin by Marina on bird board with images. Swallow Hirundinidae Wormwood shrikes Hypocoliidae Trupial Icteridae Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae.

Sparrow with video 2.

Melanocharitidae photo, description, taxonomy LifeCatalog. Taxon rank Taxon name Taxon code in ITIS Kingdom. Fan tailed Berrypecker is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Melanocharitidae family. Cecie JayBirds: Assorted White crested Laughingthrush by. Publication of the teacher on the topic How fragile this world is. Pedagogical development. Nuthatches are Melanocharitidae and Whistler Pachycephalidae Therefore, according to the classification of Sibley Alqvist, the genus Mohuaalat. Mohoua. Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster. Accentorids Prunellidae Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae Dwarf honey beetles Paramythiidae Passeriformes Passeridae. Modern classification of birds BirdsGuide. Family Melanocharitidae Family Meliphagidae Lyrebird family Menuridae Mockingbird family Mimidae.

Taxonomia: Passeriformes e uma ordem da classe Aves Tetrapodes.

Book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster Melanocharitidae buy today with delivery and guarantee at a bargain price. Frederic P. English via Savitri Course 2 Savitri Morning Dew. Family Melanocharitidae 10 spp est? Family Meliphagidae 173 spp est? Family Menuridae 2 spp est? Family Mimidae 35 spp est ?. Melanocharitidae is What is Melanocharitidae ?. Birds Ptilonorhynchidae Family Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae Order Loons Gaviiformes Family Loons Gaviidae.

Melanocharitidae Wikiz.

21 Dasyornithidae 22 Pardalotidae 23 Acanthizidae 24 Pomatostomidae 25 Orthonychidae 26 Cnemophilidae 27 Melanocharitidae 28 Paramythiidae 29. Fruit eater family Melanocharitidae Parrots and other birds. Today they are provided with their own family in a clade close to the berrypeckers and longbills Melanocharitidae and the Pachycephalidae whistlers.

Systematics Family: Melanocharitidae.

Detailed characteristics of the book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster Melanocharitidae with a description of all the features. And. The science. History of Science. and 642 -. The superfamily Passeroidea consists of the families of passerines Passeridae, finches, paramitia Paramythiidae, fructoed Melanocharitidae,.

Order passerine representatives: genus of passerine birds.

Tanager Thymus Wagtail Flower-eating Cystolic Bristle shrike Melanocharitidae Paramythiidae Ptilogonatidae. Melanocharitidae LifeCatalog. Melanocharitidae is a family of birds of the Passeriformes order. Melanocharitidae Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class :. Passerine. Laniidae. Machaerirhynchidae. Machaerirhynchidae. Malaconotidae. Malaconotidae. Maluridae. Maluridae. Melanocharitidae. Melanocharitidae. Meliphagidae. Characteristics of the book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John. Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae.

Whistlers, birds.

Family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae Order Loons Gaviiformes Family Loons Gaviidae Order Dove-like. Systematics of Birds Wildlife. Through google I found on Wikipedia that longbill is such a bird: http: en. pedia. org Melanocharitidae. According to the image, this is a sunbird. Presentation: Sparrow Social Network of Workers.

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