Bird Families

Kaffir African bustard

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Bustard (Latin Otididae) - a family of large terrestrial birds native to the Old World, belonging to the order crane-like. According to genetic studies, they are considered relatives of cranes, from which they deviated about 70 million years ago. Includes 26 species, divided into 11 genera.

Spread

All but one species inhabit the steppes, savannas and semi-deserts of Africa, Asia and southern Europe; one species, the Australian Great Bustard (Ardeotis australis), is found in Australia and New Guinea. 16 species of bustard live exclusively in the tropical zone of Africa, 2 more times appear in its northern part.

Most prefer open spaces with good visibility over a considerable distance. Some African species, such as small bustards (Eupodotis), crested bustards (Lophotis), black-bellied bustards (Lissotis), are tolerant of various woody vegetation, such as acacia groves or thorny shrubs, and small Indian bustards (Sypheotides) usually inhabit areas with tall grass.

Classification

  • Genus Afrotis
    • Black bustard (Afrotis afra)
    • Afrotis afraoides
  • Vyhlyai genus (Chlamydotis)
    • Wiggle (Chlamydotis undulata)
    • Chlamydotis macqueenii
  • Genus Great bustards (Ardeotis)
    • Arabian Great Bustard (Ardeotis arabs)
    • African Great Bustard (Ardeotis kori)
    • Indian Great Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)
    • Australian Great Bustard (Ardeotis australis)
  • Genus Lesser bustards (Eupodotis)
    • Senegalese Little Bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis)
    • Blue bustard (Eupodotis caerulescens)
    • Black-throated bustard (Eupodotis vigorsii)
    • Eupodotis rueppellii
    • Brown bustard (Eupodotis humilis)
  • Rod? Houbaropsis
    • Great bearded bustard (Houbaropsis bengalensis)
  • Genus Lissotis
    • Black-bellied bustard (Lissotis melanogaster)
    • Sudanese bustard (Lissotis hartlaubii)
  • Genus Lophotis
    • Red-crested bustard (Lophotis ruficrista)
    • Lophotis savilei
    • Lophotis gindiana
  • Genus African bustards (Neotis)
    • South African bustard (Neotis ludwigii)
    • Kaffir African bustard (Neotis denhami)
    • Somali African bustard (Neotis heuglinii)
    • Nubian African Bustard (Neotis nuba)
  • Genus Bustard (Otis)
    • Great bustard (Otis tarda)
  • Genus Small Indian bustards (Sypheotides)
    • Little Indian bustard (Sypheotides indica)
  • Rod Strepeta (Tetrax)
    • Little bustard (Tetrax tetrax)

The size and weight of birds varies significantly from 40 to 120 cm and from 0.45 to 19 kg, respectively, the largest representative of the family is considered the African Great Bustard (Ardeotis kori), reaching a height of 110 cm and weighing up to 19 kg, which makes it one of the most massive flying birds on Earth.

The physique is strong. The head is relatively large, slightly flattened in the upper part. Male bustards (Otis), large bustards (Ardeotis), African bustards (Neotis), black-bellied bustards (Lissotis), beauty bustards (Chlamydotis) and floricans (Houbaropsis) have a feathery crest on their heads, which is especially noticeable during mating games. The beak is short and straight. The neck is long, slightly thickened. The wings are large and strong; when danger appears, the birds most often try to fly away. The legs are long, with wide and relatively short toes, on which there are rigid corpus callosities in the lower part, the hind toe is absent, which indicates their terrestrial lifestyle. Male bustards are larger than females, which is most noticeable in large species - the difference in their size reaches up to 1/3 of the length of the other sex, in smaller species the difference is less noticeable.

The plumage is mainly of protective shades: in the upper part it is brown or finely cross-striped, which well merges the bird pressed to the ground with the environment. In the lower part, the plumage is different: in species that inhabit open spaces, it is often white, and sometimes black in dense vegetation. Many species have black-and-white spots on their wings, which are invisible on the ground and are clearly visible during flight. Males are usually more brightly colored than females, at least during the breeding season, with the exception of the genus Lesser Bustards (Eupodotis), where the plumage of both sexes looks the same.

Lifestyle

Bustards lead exclusively terrestrial life, never using trees or shrubs. Several species, such as the bustard (Otis tarda) or the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), gather in flocks, the latter living in groups of several thousand individuals. Species adapted to deserts, such as the beauty bustard (Chlamydotis), live more secluded. Some species gather in groups only during the mating season. They can often be seen among herds of grazing animals, where they hunt disturbed insects and are more protected from attacks by predators.

Only a few populations are exclusively sedentary, while the majority are nomadic or migratory birds. Species that breed in Asia migrate long distances in winter.

Bustards are omnivores and have a very wide dietary range. However, in most species, plant food still predominates. They consume young shoots, flowers and leaves of herbaceous plants, dig up soft roots, feed on fruits and seeds. In addition, they feed on various insects: beetles, grasshoppers and other arthropods. Sometimes they eat small vertebrates: reptiles, rodents, etc., without disdaining and carrion. Birds can do without water for a long time, but if it is available they drink it well.

Reproduction

The breeding season usually coincides with the heavy rainy season when food is abundant. When courting, males of many species arrange magnificent demonstrations, in which they are capable of ruffling their necks, emitting an impressive drum trill, as well as inflating it like a balloon. Small species, especially those living among tall grass, jump high in the air or make small flights so that it is noticeable from a distance.

As a rule, there is no long-term relationship between the female and the male, and after fertilization, the female incubates the eggs and hatches the chicks alone. The nest is arranged on the ground, in a small depression covered with grassy vegetation. The female lays 1-6 (most often 2-4) eggs over several days. The incubation period is different for different species, but generally lasts in a small interval of 20-25 days. Chicks are of the brood type and are able to leave the nest within a few hours after birth.

Or bustard Corey - a large flying bird that lives, as the name implies, on the African continent. Occurs in open areas with sandy soils, overgrown with low grass and shrubs, as well as in low-wooded savannas and semi-deserts. These characteristics correspond to the territories of Botswana, Namibia, Partially Angola, Zambabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa. Leads mainly a sedentary lifestyle, making minor movements after rains.

African bustard is the heaviest flying bird on the continent. Males reach a weight of up to 19 kg, and grow in length up to 130 cm. Females are very different in size - they are about 2/3 lighter than males, and weigh an average of 5.5 kg. The bird has a relatively long neck and very long legs, the general tone of the feather cover is gray-brown.

Feathers on the neck are long, gray in color with a huge number of black and white flecks. The back and part of the wings are brownish-brown, the chest and belly are white, there are several dozen randomly scattered black spots on the folds of the wings. On the back of the head there is a long crest of black feathers, the legs and beak are yellowish.

Most of the time, the large African bustard spends on the ground. Being a large and heavy bird, it takes off only when absolutely necessary.

Bustards live both singly and in small groups of 5-7 birds. They are active in the mornings and evenings, when they walk sedately on the ground in search of food. They are quite omnivorous, but mainly eat insects such as locusts, grasshoppers and caterpillars. Also, lizards, chameleons, snakes, small mammals and even chicks, eggs and carrion often fall on their menu. Bustard Corey regularly visit watering places, if they are located nearby, but the bird can be found far from water sources. Unusually, they do not scoop up water like other birds, but suck it.

The mating season for the great African bustard is most active in November and December. Like other bustards, this species "professes" a polygamous breeding model - one male mates with many females. Fierce clashes often occur between males, when they, swelling the goiter, fluffing feathers on the neck, dropping their wings and protruding their tail, rush at each other, showering their opponent with a hail of blows with their beak.

After mating, the female bustard Corey lays 2 (rarely more or less) eggs on bare ground. Then, within 23-30 days, the female incubates the clutch, practically not leaving the nest. When the chicks hatch, she provides soft food for them to eat. Chicks fledge at 4-5 weeks, but they will be able to fly confidently only at the age of 3-4 months.

Mostly a terrestrial bird, the African measles bustard is prey for many predators. Among them, leopard, cheetah, mountain pythons, jackals and war eagles (the last two predators are especially dangerous for eggs and chicks) attack bustards of all ages. Also African warthogs, mongooses and baboons can eat eggs and chicks. On average, out of two chicks, only one survives to adulthood. In case of danger, the female tries to protect the offspring by fluffing her wings and tail to appear larger, but she does not always manage to keep the brood.

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Indian Great Bustard Video, Indian Great Bustard Publishing
Ardeotis nigriceps (Vigors, 1831)

(lat.Ardeotis nigriceps) is a bird from the Bustard family.

  • 1 General characteristics
  • 2 Distribution
  • 3 Lifestyle
    • 3.1 Nutrition
    • 3.2 Reproduction
  • 4 Indian bustard and man
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 Literature

General characteristics

The Indian bustard is a large bird, reaching a height of 1 m, a wingspan of up to 2.5 m, and a weight of over 18 kg. The male is noticeably larger than the female. The back is brown, the head and neck are grayish-beige, the belly is the same color. Males have a black stripe on the chest, on the crown of the head a black crest up to 5 cm long. On long, strong legs, three toes directed forward. The middle finger is approximately 7.5 cm long.

Lifestyle

The step of the Indian bustard is majestic, it takes every step slowly. She holds her head high, at an angle of 45 °, which makes it seem that the neck is bent a little back. The alarmed bustard begins to scream.

Food

The large Indian bustard feeds on various small animals - grasshoppers, snails, small snakes, centipedes, lizards, beetles, pecks spiders from the web. In addition, the bustard also hunts mice, thereby making a service for local farmers. It also feeds on plants: some types of herbs, leaves, seeds and grains. He raids melons, eats seeds from watermelons and melons. The bustard usually feeds early in the morning and late in the evening, and rests during the day.

Reproduction

The Indian Great Bustard is a polygamous bird. The male has several females, but he does not show care for eggs and offspring. For mating ceremonies, the male chooses small hills or sand dunes; when strangers approach, he immediately hides in the thickets of tall grass. mating season, the male dances, walks importantly, spreading his tail with a fan, screams loudly. His cry resembles a cross between the snort of a camel and the roar of a lion. Usually, these cries can be heard in the morning hours even before dawn and in the evening twilight and are carried over long distances. After mating, the female lays one egg, as a rule, in places remote from humans. To do this, she digs a hole in the ground and lays an egg. Sometimes two eggs can be found in a bustard's nest. However, according to ornithologists, this does not mean that one female laid two eggs, most likely, it is two females from one male that laid their eggs in one place. Usually Indian bustards lay their eggs from June to October, sometimes this happens at other times of the year. The egg of the Indian bustard is elongated, covered with chocolate spots and reddish-brown markings. After 20-28 days, a chick hatches from the egg, which can walk immediately. In cases of danger, the female sits on the nest to the last, then suddenly jumps out to meet the enemy, loudly flapping her wings. If there is a chick in the nest, then it begins to hiss or silently changes its location and sits on the ground. Sometimes the female pretends to be wounded, pretending that her legs are hit and takes the enemy away from the nest, flies low above the ground, the chick at this time sits, huddled to the ground, and does not move until the mother calls him. After a while, he begins to make soft whistling sounds, calling for his mother.

Indian bustard and man

Due to poaching, the Indian bustard has been brought to the brink of extinction. In the 1970s, measures began to be taken in India to save the Indian bustard, it was even proposed to make it a national symbol of this country. Some Indian zoos have learned how to raise bustards, and the most suitable diet for captive birds has been developed.

Notes (edit)

  1. Boehme R.L., Flint V.E. A five-language dictionary of animal names. Birds. Latin, Russian, English, German, French / Edited by Acad. V.E.Sokolova. - M .: Rus. lang., "RUSSO", 1994. - P. 76. - 2030 copies. - ISBN 5-200-00643-0.

Literature

  • Bedi R. "The animal world of India" M .: Mir 1987

Indian Great Bustard Ventana, Indian Great Bustard Video, Indian Great Bustard Publishing, Indian Great Bustard Photos

Indian Great Bustard Information About

The great African bustard is also known as the Corey bustard. It is a large flying bird that, as the name implies, lives on the African continent. Its Latin name is Ardeotis kori.

He prefers to live in open spaces with sandy soils, which are overgrown with shrubs and low grass, as well as in semi-deserts and low-wooded savannas. It is these natural conditions that exist in the territories of countries such as Namibia, Botswana, some parts of Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa. These birds are predominantly sedentary, and only after the rainy season do they make small movements.

The African bustard is the heaviest flying bird in all of Africa. Males can weigh up to 19 kg and lengths up to 130 cm.

Females differ significantly from them in their size, they are much lighter than males (by almost two-thirds) and weigh about 5.5 kg. Both sexes have rather long necks and legs. The feather cover of the body is gray-brown in color.

Bustards are large birds.

But on the neck, the feathers are gray, longer than on the rest of the body, and have a large number of specks of black and white. The back and partly the wings are painted brown-brown, the chest and belly are white, on the wings, in places of folds, black spots are randomly located, the number of which is several dozen. The back of the head is decorated with a long tuft, the feathers of which are black. The beak of the African bustard and its legs are yellowish.

The flights of the African bustard are rare, most of the time the bird moves on the ground.

Since the African bustard is a large and heavy bird, it prefers to spend most of its time on the ground, rising into the air only when absolutely necessary.

Bustards can live both alone and in small groups of 5-7 individuals. They are most active in the morning and evening hours, when they walk in search of food. They are quite omnivorous birds, but preference is given to such insects as grasshoppers, locusts and caterpillars. They diversify their menu with chameleons, lizards, snakes, small mammals, chicks, eggs, and do not disdain carrion. The bustard Kori can live both near watering places and far enough from the water. Its characteristic feature is that when drinking, it does not scoop up water, like most birds, but sucks it in.

The mating season of the African bustard reaches its peak in November and December. Like other bustards, they adhere to a polygamous model of behavior, i.e. one male mates with several females. Often, males engage in fierce battles with each other. At the same time, they fluff up the feathers on the neck, inflate the goiter, lower their wings and protrude their tail, after which they throw themselves on the opponent, showering him with tangible blows with their beak.

After fertilization, the female of the large African bustard lays on average 2 eggs directly on bare ground, after which she incubates chicks from 23 to 30 days, practically without leaving the clutch. She supplies the chicks that have been born with soft food that they are able to eat. By 4-5 weeks, the chicks are covered with feathers, but they will learn to fly only by 3-4 months of age.

The African Great Bustard is a prey for large predators.

Since the measles bustard spends most of its time on the ground, it becomes an object of hunting for many predators. These include

Indian great bustard. Interesting facts: The Indian bustard is a large bird, reaching a height of 1 m, a wingspan of up to 2.5 m, and a weight of over 18 kg. The male is noticeably larger than the female.The back is brown, the head and neck are grayish-beige, the belly is the same color. Males have a black stripe on the chest, on the crown of the head a black crest up to 5 cm long. On long, strong legs, three toes directed forward. The length of the middle finger is approximately 7.5 cm. It is found in India. Lives, like all bustards, in open spaces, fields and wastelands. The step of the Indian bustard is majestic, it takes every step slowly. She holds her head high, at an angle of 45 °, which makes it seem that the neck is bent a little back. The alarmed bustard begins to scream. The large Indian bustard is found in various small animals - grasshoppers, snails, small snakes, centipedes, lizards, beetles, and pecks spiders from the cobweb. In addition, the bustard also hunts mice, thereby making a service for local farmers. It also feeds on plants: some types of herbs, leaves, seeds and grains. He raids melons, eats seeds from watermelons and melons. The bustard usually feeds early in the morning and late in the evening, and rests during the day. The Indian Great Bustard is a polygamous bird. The male has several females, but he does not show care for eggs and offspring. For mating ceremonies, the male chooses small hills or sand dunes; when strangers approach, he immediately hides in the thickets of tall grass. During the mating season, the male dances, walks importantly, spreading his tail with a fan, and screams loudly. His cry resembles a cross between the snort of a camel and the roar of a lion. Usually, these cries can be heard in the morning hours even before dawn and in the evening twilight and are carried over long distances. After mating, the female lays one egg, as a rule, in places remote from humans. To do this, she digs a hole in the ground and lays an egg. Sometimes two eggs can be found in a bustard's nest. However, according to ornithologists, this does not mean that one female laid two eggs, most likely, it is two females from one male that laid their eggs in one place. Usually Indian bustards lay their eggs from June to October, sometimes this happens at other times of the year. The egg of the Indian bustard is elongated, covered with chocolate spots and reddish-brown markings. After 20-28 days, a chick hatches from the egg, which can walk immediately. In cases of danger, the female sits on the nest to the last, then suddenly jumps out to meet the enemy, loudly flapping her wings. If there is a chick in the nest, then it begins to hiss or silently changes its location and sits on the ground. Sometimes the female pretends to be wounded, pretending that her legs are hit and takes the enemy away from the nest, flies low above the ground, the chick at this time sits, huddled to the ground, and does not move until the mother calls him. After a while, he begins to make soft whistling sounds, calling for his mother.

See also other dictionaries:

kaffir African bustard - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Bustard - African Great Bustard ... Wikipedia

Protected areas of Tanzania - quite diverse, ranging from marine areas and ending with the meadows of Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. About a third of the entire territory of the country is a protected area, consisting of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, marine ... ... Wikipedia

Denham`s bustard - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Kafferntrappe - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Neotis denhami - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Otis denhami - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

outarde de denham - tamsianugaris einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

tamsianugaris einis - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Neotis denhami, Otis denhami angl. Denham s bustard vok. Kafferntrappe, f rus. kaffir African bustard, f pranc. outarde de Denham, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas - afrikiniai einiai ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

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