|Latin name:||Cettia cetti|
|Additionally:||European species description|
Appearance and behavior... A small, very mobile bird, slightly smaller than a sparrow, about the size of a nightingale cricket, painted in soft brownish-grayish tones. The body length is about 14 cm, the wingspan is 15-19 cm, the weight is 12-18 g. It lives in dense thickets, along which, as it seems, it constantly actively moves, mainly keeping to the ground or on the ground and rising higher, into the crowns of shrubs or on the stalks of tall grasses, reeds, etc., mainly in order to perform a short sonorous song and again "dive" into the thickets. Unlike crickets and warblers, it often lifts up a wide tail.
Description... A compact bird with a slightly elongated tail and a short neck, which distinguishes it from somewhat more "long-necked" reeds and crickets. The tail is wide, rounded, consists of 5, and not like most species of the family, 6 pairs of tail feathers. The beak is slightly elongated and thin, the setae at its base are very short and poorly visible. When viewed from the side, it can be seen that the contour of the vertex is not flattened, like in reeds and crickets, but somewhat angular. The wings are short, rounded, when folded they do not reach the middle of the tail. The upper is brown with a chestnut or pinkish tint, like a nightingale, the lower body is grayish on the chest and grayish-brown on the sides of the abdomen and on the undertail. The throat and central abdomen are white. The sides of the neck and cheeks are also gray (contrasting with the brown coloration of the crown). A thin brown stripe passes through the eye, a small light gray eyebrow is visible above it. Eyes are dark, beak is dark above and light below, legs are brown. In contrast to adults, young birds are slightly brownish. Males and females are colored similarly, the male is noticeably larger than the female (in contrast to other warblers of the region).
Vote... The presence of this secretive species is usually indicated by a short loud song, which is a well-formed phrase of 3-4 repetitive whistling syllables, preceded by a separate signal. From time to time, the male publishes several songs, moving to the upper part of the bush thickets, after which it hides in the surface vegetation and becomes silent for some time. It sings actively almost all day and the entire period from arrival to departure of young birds from their nests. The call is also loud, it is a series of repetitions without pauses "tchi-tchi-tchi"Or short signals"tchi, read-read" other.
Distribution, status... From the Mediterranean - southern Europe and northern Africa to the east to the western foothills of Altai and Mongolia. In European Russia, breeds in Ciscaucasia, along the coast of the Caspian Sea and in the Lower Volga region. In these territories it is migratory, in the main part of the range it is a sedentary species, during wintering it appears in some regions of South Asia. Arrives early, when the snow is melting, flies off in August or September. In typical biotopes, it is common, sometimes numerous.
Lifestyle... Inhabits dense shrub and shrub-woody thickets near water with dry reeds and vines, does not settle in flooded thickets. The nest is a cup tightly woven of plant materials; feathers and wool may be present in the lining of the tray. The nest is placed in the lower part of dense vegetation or on the ground, the nesting material does not braid the supports that are in contact with the walls (branches, stems, etc.).
In a clutch there are 4–5 eggs, usually of dark brown-red color with a small number of dark spots, sometimes lighter, but sometimes, on the contrary, very dark. The female or, possibly, both partners incubate the clutch for 13-14 days. Newborn chicks have a small number of brown long pushers on their heads and backs. Both parents feed the chicks, they leave the nest about 2 weeks after hatching and stay with their parents for a long time. Apparently, they can make two clutches per breeding season.
They feed on small invertebrates, which are collected on vegetation and, sometimes, on the ground.
Broad-tailed warbler, or broad-tailed nightingale (Cettia cetti)