Bird Families

Taxon profile

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viewBulbul shirt-front, pale-belliedAlophoixus pallidusSwinhoe1870
genus(Alophoixus)AlophoixusOates1889
familyBulbul (Short-toed Thrushes)PycnonotidaeG. R. Gray1840
superfamilySlavkovySylvioidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fantail Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of the intraspecific one. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise at all by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

Included taxa

Number of records: 10

species Alophoixus bres(Lesson, 1832) - Brown-cheeked Bulbul

species Alophoixus flaveolus(Gould, 1836) - White-throated Bulbul

species Alophoixus ochraceus(Moore, 1854) - Ochraceous bulbul

species Alophoixus pallidus(Swinhoe, 1870) - Puff-throated bulbul

Five projects in Uganda funded to address conservation emergencies through COVID-19 and other threats

The IUCN Save Our Species and the BIOPAMA Action Component have awarded EUR 368,939 from the EU and the Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States to five organizations in Uganda to address biodiversity conservation needs.

New IUCN-backed study finds Gray Whales at high risk from ship strikes in the North Pacific Ocean

Ships operating in the North Pacific pose a serious threat to Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus), according to the first scientific study that examines the impacts of vessel traffic on the species throughout its range.

One-third of freshwater fish face extinction, warns new report

The ever-increasing pressure on the world’s freshwater fish species, with one in three threatened with extinction, is highlighted in a new report ‘The World’s Forgotten Fishes’ published this week by 16 global conservation organizations.

Eastern Gorilla (Critically Endangered, A4bcd ver 3.1)

Usage Information

Photo "Ochraceus bulbul (Phoixus ochraceus))" can be used for personal and commercial purposes according to the conditions of the purchased Royalty-free license. The image is available for download in high resolution quality up to 4928x3264.

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Annotation to the book "Alophoixus"

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Alophoixus is a genus of songbird in the Pycnonotidae family. All the species occur in southeast Asia. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds. Many forest species are known as greenbuls. The family is distributed across most of Africa and into the Middle East, tropical Asia to Indonesia, and north as far as Japan. A few insular species.

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Alophoixus is a genus of songbird in the Pycnonotidae family. All the species occur in southeast Asia. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds. Many forest species are known as greenbuls. The family is distributed across most of Africa and into the Middle East, tropical Asia to Indonesia, and north as far as Japan. A few insular species occur on the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean There are about 130 species in around 24 genera. While some species are found in most habitats, overall African species are predominately found in rainforest whilst rainforest species are rare in Asia, instead preferring more open areas. The only Bulbul which occurs in Europe was spotted in the Cyclades and bears a yellow patch, being otherwise of a snuffy brown and this is possibly the bird which has got mixed up with the nightingale in Sufi, particularly Persian Sufi, poetry.

This publication is not original. The book is printed using print-on-demand technology after receiving the order.

Data Deficient (DD)

A taxon is Data Deficient (DD) when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and / or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and / or distribution are lacking.

Least Concern (LC)

A taxon is Least Concern (LC) when it has been evaluated against the Red List criteria and does not qualify for Critically endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened.

Near Threatened (NT)

A taxon is Near Threatened (NT) when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.

Vulnerable (VU)

A taxon is Vulnerable (VU) when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.

Endangered (EN)

A taxon is Endangered (EN) when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered, and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

Critically Endangered (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered (CR) when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered, and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

Extinct In The Wild (EW)

A taxon is Extinct In The Wild (EW) when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and / or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.

Extinct (EX)

A taxon is Extinct (EX) when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and / or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.

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