Eastern black-headed munia Lonchura atricapilla (Vieillot, 1807), sometimes considered a subspecies of the black-headed munia (L. malacca atricapilla)
Black and white finch Lonchura bicolor (Fraser, 1843)
Gray-headed munia Lonchura caniceps (Salvadori, 1876)
Silver-billed finch Lonchura cantans (Gmelin, 1789)
Chestnut-breasted finch Lonchura castaneothorax (Gould, 1837)
Bronze-winged finch Lonchura cucullata (Swainson, 1837)
Javanese Munia Lonchura ferruginosa (Sparrman, 1789)
Yellow Munia Lonchura flaviprymna (Gould, 1845)
Lonchura forbesi striped munia (Sclater, 1879)
Large finch-shirt Lonchura fringilloides (Lafresnaye, 1835)
Brown finch Lonchura fuscans (Cassin, 1852)
Great Munia Lonchura grandis (Sharpe, 1882)
Pearl-headed finch Lonchura griseicapilla Delacour, 1943
Gray-necked munia Lonchura hunsteini (Finsch, 1886)
Gold-lumbar finch Lonchura kelaarti (Jerdon, 1863)
White-bellied finch Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth, 1846)
Javanese finch Lonchura leucogastroides (Horsfield & Moore, 1858)
Spotted finch Lonchura leucosticta (Albertis & Salvadori, 1879)
White-headed munia Lonchura maja (Linnaeus, 1766)
Malabar finch Lonchura malabarica (Linnaeus, 1758)
Black-headed munia Lonchura malacca (Linnaeus, 1766)
Thick-billed finch Lonchura melaena (Sclater, 1880)
Moluccan finch Lonchura molucca (Linnaeus, 1766)
Highland Munia Lonchura montana Junge, 1939
Alpine Munia Lonchura monticola (De Vis, 1897)
Yellow-breasted Munia Lonchura nevermanni Stresemann, 1934
Funeral Munia Lonchura nigerrima (Rothschild & Hartert, 1899)
Brown-backed munia Lonchura nigriceps (Cassin, 1852)
Pale-headed munia Lonchura pallida (Wallace, 1863)
White-bellied Munia Lonchura pallidiventer Restall, 1996
Scaly-breasted finch Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Lonchura quinticolor five-color munia (Vieillot, 1807)
Magnificent Munia Lonchura spectabilis (Sclater, 1879)
Sharp-tailed bronze finch Lonchura striata (Linnaeus, 1766)
Black Munia Lonchura stygia Stresemann, 1934
Black-breasted Munia Lonchura teerinki Rand 1940
Funeral finch Lonchura tristissima (Wallace, 1865)
White-faced munia Lonchura vana (Hartert, 1930)
Appearance and dimensions
|The weight||12 to 30 g|
|Body length||0.12 to 0.15 m|
|Color||The color of the plumage varies depending on the habitat: |
temperate latitudes - combinations of gray, brown, white shades,
subtropics and tropics - a combination of red, black, blue, green, purple, yellow.
|Beak||Thickened, bent in an arc, looks almost transparent, as if made of wax (for this, birds are also called "wax-billed").|
|Wings||In length they reach almost 8 cm, and in span up to 16 cm.|
|Tail||Straight, with a length of 3 to 9 cm|
|Species differences||They are classified according to the size of the body and the color of the plumage.|
|Features of the|| |
Singing resembles whistling, chirping, hissing, gurgling, while females sing worse than males.
Males of some subspecies change clothes before the breeding season, and become similar to females.
|Differences between a male and a female||Coral and larger beak in males, orange and smaller in females. And there are also differences that differ depending on the species.|
|Features of young animals||Black beak and less variegated plumage up to a year.|
Habitat and lifestyle
- Sri Lanka,
- New Guinea,
Flocks of birds, which number up to several thousand birds, are found both in open areas and in remote forest groves. Nesting places rarely leave - they fly only in the vicinity, looking for food and water. With nutritional deficiencies, some subspecies can roam, and even sometimes settle in parks near people or raid farmlands.
In the wild, birds feed mainly on plant seeds, rarely grain. But during the feeding of the offspring, birds switch to protein foods - insects, larvae. The Amadins are looking for food with the whole flock and fly away only to feed their offspring.
Amadines nest year-round. After the departure of the grown young, the couple immediately goes to the mating season. During a short period of "courtship", the male lures his beloved with a variety of trills. After successful breeding, the female lays up to 4 eggs, which incubate for 14 days. Both parents feed the chicks.
Young parrots leave the nest about 2 months after birth. Thus, one pair of parrots can grow up to 4 broods per year. 3-month-old Amadines become sexually mature and ready to reproduce.
It is worth noting the oval nests that the parrot Amadina builds. For construction, birds choose leaves from trees and various plant fibers. During the construction process, they very deftly penetrate the building material (literally "sew, weave"), therefore they are often called "weavers" among the people. Also, the birds arrange their "houses" in small hollows or burrows, well protected from predators.
The average life cycle of Amadin is 8 years, but, for example, the gould and scaly subspecies live up to 10-12 years.
Officially registered record for a bird to live 15 years.
Among the factors that shorten the life of wild birds:
- nutritional deficiencies
- natural disasters (fires, floods),
- human intervention (deforestation, colonization of natural habitats),
- infectious diseases.
To date, 38 species of Amadins and more than three hundred subspecies are known. Thanks to selection, the species number is updated every year. Among the most popular are the types presented in the table below.
|Name Amadin||Habitat||Features of the|
|Japanese finch or Japanese pearl||Japanese amadins were bred in Japan by crossing bronze manakin with Chinese or Japanese amadin species. Found only in captivity (mainly in Japan).||Japanese finches have a gray head, throat, wings, tail, and a brown breast, belly, nape and back. Calm and unpretentious birds are easy to keep and can live with other species of birds. Japanese Amadins can mate with all members of their Family. The offspring takes on a very original appearance, but at the same time they are sterile (unable to reproduce).|
|Zebra||Zebra Amadines are common throughout Australia.||Males, which are larger in size, have orange cheeks and a red-tinged beak, while females have gray cheeks and an orange beak. Males love to sing a lot, and "ladies" - to listen and be silent. This species can be without fresh water for up to 2 weeks, and if absolutely necessary, drink sea water. The female lays eggs only during the rainy season. Since the beginning of the 19th century, zebra Amadins began to be bred at home, where zebra white Amadins with black eyes were bred.|
|Rice||They appeared on the territory of Bali and Java, but now they are found on all continents.||They got the name because of their great love for rice and forays into rice fields. They are considered the largest. Their length reaches 15 cm.|
|Guldova||Amadines Gould live in the north of the Australian continent. It is considered an endangered species!||The Amadines of Gould were named after the wife of the scientist who discovered them, Gould. Possess the brightest color. They often migrate in search of food and water. It is quite difficult to breed them at home, since birds are quite susceptible to temperature fluctuations. Amadina Goulda are bad parents. They can abandon their chicks when there is a nutritional deficiency. When breeding at home, it is also recommended to acquire a pair of Japanese Amadin, who will gladly take out the abandoned offspring if necessary.|
|White||They live in Australia, Africa, South Asia.||Birds sing poorly. And outwardly white plumage is not completely white. You can often find feathers of different shades on the body - black, red, green, blue, yellow, purple.|
|Sharp-tailed||Distributed on the Australian continent.||The birds got their name from their appearance - a sharp tail, the length of which reaches 8 cm. These parrots are very devoted to each other. Nests are built only on eucalyptus trees.|
|Red-throated||Natural area - the southwestern territories of the African continent.||The main feature is the presence of red plumage on the neck.|
|Chestnut-breasted||Habitat - Australia, New Guinea.||Feathered are very similar to sparrows, as their color is dominated by brown tones.|
|Scale-chested||It can be found on the territory of China, India, the islands of Indonesia.||Against the background of brown plumage, a beautiful gray-white scaly belly pattern stands out, for which the birds were named. Birds of this species build their globular nests above all their relatives.|
Content in the apartment
Most Amadin do well at home. But in order for the birds to feel comfortable and to please the household with their singing, it is imperative to deal with all the nuances of their life and prepare well. Experienced breeders do not recommend keeping several different species in one cage at once, so as not to provoke conflicts between birds.
What to feed
Not only the appearance of the bird depends on nutrition, but also how long it will live.
- 1-2 times a day.
- Wet food - 1-2 times for 7-10 days.
- Green food - 3-4 times a week.
- Cereals, seeds - daily.
Dosage food - 1-2 tsp. feed mixtures per day.
|The diet should contain:|
|Grain, grain mixtures, microgreen of them: |
Peking or Brussels sprouts
Branches of fruit trees, as well as willow, linden, birch
|Protein Supplements: |
Cottage cheese (low-fat)
Insects with larvae
Such supplements are especially important during the breeding season.
|Mineral impurities: |
Cuttlefish shell (sepia)
|Feathered drink must be given filtered boiled water. But fresh juices from fruits and berries with the addition of lemon juice, compotes, decoctions, infusions are also allowed.|
Which cell to choose
Housing requirements for Amadins:
- Parameters - from 0.3x0.2x0.25 cm (per bird) of rectangular shape.
- The distance between the rods is 1-1.5 cm.
- The material for the cage is acrylic, plastic, polycarbonate, wood.
- The pallet is retractable.
- Inventory - two poles, a drinking bowl, three feeders, a bath for bathing, a nest (if desired, breed).
- The presence of a strong shutter on the door.
- Allowed temperature range - + 18- + 24 0 С, humidity - 50-80%.
Amadines are quite light-loving birds. Therefore, the cage with pets is placed in the brightest place without drafts, away from noise. But at the same time, it should be monitored so that direct sunlight does not fall on the birds for more than 3 hours. In winter, the daylight hours are extended to the birds up to 12 hours with the help of additional artificial light sources.
Hygiene and bathing
Amadins are not demanding pets, but they are quite clean, they do not tolerate dirt. Therefore, the cage and equipment must be cleaned regularly, as well as constantly changing the litter (paper is changed daily, and others - sand, gravel - every 3 days). Once a month, the cage and equipment are disinfected using special disinfectants or boiling water.
An important point for birds is swimming. It helps them to clean the feathers, restores the normal turgor of the skin. A porcelain or plastic tray can be placed on the bottom or hung from the walls of the cage. For the birds, a bathtub slightly larger than themselves with a depth of 1 cm will be enough. Bathing water is suitable at room temperature, but it must be filtered and settled. After bathing, the water is drained, and the bath is washed.
Care during molting
Molting is a physiological process for all birds. It does not require any special care, but it will require some involvement from the breeders. Homemade Amadins need to add vitamins to the diet - you can purchase special veterinary supplements or diversify the menu with fruits, berries, vegetables. In addition to food, the birds are recommended to rest - a minimum of contacts (it is even better to put the pets in separate cages). When the birds begin to sing loudly, then the molt can be considered complete.
How many live
If all the recommendations of bird watchers are followed, Amadines in captivity can live up to 12 years. In captivity, the life of birds is negatively reflected:
- Irrational care and nutrition.
- Failure to comply with sanitary and hygienic conditions of detention.
Possible diseases and their prevention
Amadines are susceptible to viral, parasitic, fungal and bacterial pathologies. Among them there are those that all birds are sick with (psittacosis, coccytosis, hypovitaminosis), and there are those that only weavers suffer from (tracheal tick, alopecia).
The main source of infection:
- new individuals that have not gone through quarantine,
- poor quality food,
- poor conditions of detention.
In case of illness, birds show certain symptoms:
- become passive, hide the head under the wings,
- roll their eyes
- drink a lot, eat or vice versa - refuse to drink with food.
Breeding at home
The optimal reproductive age for the Amadins is from 1 to 5 years. To get offspring from birds at home, they need to recreate the necessary conditions:
- Pair healthy birds with no defects.
- Enrich the pet's diet with proteins (insects, worms, larvae).
- Maintain a temperature between 18 and 20 ° C with a humidity of about 80%.
- Control the length of daylight hours.
- Equip a nesting house made of wood (dimensions about 0.12x0.12x0.12 cm) or provide soft grass for building a nest.
- Provide rest for birds during the breeding season.
Incubation and feeding completely falls on the shoulders of feathered parents. The hardened chicks 1.5-2 months old can be removed from the nest. But these birds are gregarious by nature, so they will live in large families on a permanent basis.
Poultry breeders call the Amadins the most beautiful, funny and friendly pets. Birds are distinguished by high intelligence, but, alas, they cannot be trained and do not learn human speech.
But it is possible to tame a parrot to your hands, if you take into account some recommendations:
- Choose young birds for training.
- Train each bird separately.
- Clip wings to prevent the pet from escaping.
- Gradually increase the time to hold the bird in your hands.
- Encourage feathered treats.
After taming the bird, at the sight of its owner, it will itself ask for freedom with the help of loud cries.
Video Handmade zebra finch
How the Amadins sing
Singing weavers is one of their main benefits, although some breeders see the negative side of loud trills. Mostly males are distinguished by vocal abilities. With the help of singing, parrots communicate with each other, report danger, ask for food, or simply show a good mood. But each type of Amadin has its own type of singing:
- gould make a monotonous sound "sieve" or "csitt»,
- zebra singing soft trills, reminiscent of the voice of a small child,
- scaly emit something similar to "kdrunk"And"chip»,
- a person cannot hear black-headed moons (singing can only be discerned by the opening beak),
- the Japanese hum "tilili»In parallel with a special creak,
- red-necked chirps like sparrows,
- Moluccan rarely, but publish a kind of short "tr-rrr",
- rice jingle like bells or babbling brooks,
- chestnut-breasted ones sing short but very melodic trills,
- from pearl-heads one can hear “pit "," cit "," crr»,
- Malabar whistles or chirps.
How to choose a bird and cost
Before purchasing, you should clearly define the type of Amadin:
- for inexperienced breeders, Japanese and zebra breeds are suitable,
- with experience, all other species of birds will do.
Better to choose young chicks. The best time to buy is autumn. During the winter, young parrots will grow up and, if the breeders wish, they will be ready for mating in the spring.
It is better to choose chicks raised in specialized poultry nurseries, where health and pedigree are guaranteed.
Video Zebra Amadines
A healthy Amadina has the following characteristics:
- Active, fast, moderately well-fed.
- Plumage - shiny, close to the body.
- The eyes are bright, shining.
- The skin is light, slightly pinkish.
- No wheezing in my voice.
- There is no discharge from the eyes and nostrils, no growths near the cloaca.
At a cost, Amadines are considered the most affordable for purchase, because their price starts at $ 3 per individual. One of the most expensive because of their rarity is the rare gould parrots (almost $ 30 apiece).
If you want to have a feathered pet at home, then finches are the best choice. Unpretentious chicks are suitable for breeding both for experienced breeders and for those who first decided to breed a feathered house. But, despite the availability and ease of care, beautiful parrots are not toys, and before purchasing, it is worthwhile to clearly determine whether it will be possible to pay attention to the feathered pet.