Small (slightly larger than teal-cracker) duck. The color is black-gray with white spots and stripes on the head, neck and wings, chestnut sides. The beak and paws are gray. The female is brown with white spots on the head.
Inhabits mountain rivers and lakes; in non-breeding time, it occurs in the coastal strip of the sea. Migrant. In general, it is small in number, but during wintering it gathers in large flocks. It nests along the banks of fast rivers with rocky bottom in the alpine belt of mountains.
There is no information on the timing and characteristics of nesting in the USSR. Gullible, lets a person close. It floats high on the water with its tail raised.
The voice of the male in the spring is a loud "gi-ek", in flocks it "talks" with a quiet "ek-ek-ek" or a hoarse "he-he". It feeds on aquatic insects and their larvae, molluscs, crustaceans. The commercial value is not great.
The drake differs from all ducks in a peculiar color, the duck looks like a female long-tailed ducks in a summer feather, but darker, without reddish tones on the back, a round white spot near the ear is characteristic.
In the book version
Volume 12. Moscow, 2008, p. 617
Copy bibliographic reference:
STONE (Histrionicus histrionicus), bird of the family. duck. Length 38–49 cm, weight 500–714 g, males are somewhat larger than females. The beak and neck are short, the tail is sharp, stepped, the paws are large, webbed. The male in the breeding plumage is dominated by dark, bluish-gray tones, the back and abdomen are black, the sides are chestnut, on the head, neck, chest and wings are white markings. The female is dark brown with white spots on the sides of the head. K. nests in the mountains of the North-East. Asia (westward to Lake Baikal and the upper reaches of the Lena River), in the Rocky Mountains of the North. America, on the Labrador Peninsula, in the south of Baffin Land and Greenland, in Iceland and on the Spitsbergen archipelago, winters in large flocks along the rocky coasts of non-freezing areas of sowing. seas of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ch. arr. in the upper reaches of mountain rivers and streams with a fast current and clear water. When diving, uses paws and wings. It feeds on molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic insects and small fish. The nest is usually carefully hidden in a dense bush or rocky niche. A clutch of 3–10 (usually 5–8) eggs is incubated by a female for 27–30 days. From the first day of life, chicks swim and dive beautifully, acquire the ability to fly after 7 weeks.
Text of the scientific work on the topic "Meeting of the mason histrionicus histrionicus in St. Petersburg"
Male mandarin duck L1xgalericulata. Solombalka River, Arkhangelsk. September 29, 2017. Photo by the authors.
The study was carried out with the support of the Project of the Ministry of Education and Science No. 6.2343.2017 / PChi, grant of the President of the Russian Federation (YD-7660.2016.5).
Andreev V.A., Kozlov M.P. 2016. Registration of mandarin duck Aix galericulata in the Arkhangelsk region // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 25 (1285): 1747-1748. Andreev V.A. 2016. Mandarin duck Aix galericulata in Arkhangelsk // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 25 (1364): 4419-4420.
Spytsyn V.M., Potapov G.S. 2016. Records of the Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) in the European North of Russia // Berkut 25, 2: 143-144.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express issue 1506: 4145-4149
Meeting of the mason Histrionicus histrionicus in St. Petersburg
Oleg Alexandrovich Stroilov. St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists. E-mail: [email protected]
Received October 2, 2017
On October 1 and 2, 2017, near the Kronverksky Bridge (across the Kronverksky Strait to Zayachiy Island, where the Peter and Paul Fortress is located), a single male mallard was kept among the mallards Anas platyrhynchos
Stiuteus LewtyuteB. The duck was in good condition, looking healthy, vigorous, clearly wild (Fig. 1, 4). When the bird went ashore, it was clear that it had no rings on its paws.
Fig. 1. Male moth Histrionicus histrionicus. Neva River, Kronversky Strait. St. Petersburg. October 1, 2017. Photo by the author.
Kamenushka hunted, dived, caught small fish. It was noticed that she also ate white bread, which is fed to mallards. Among the ducks, she behaved calmly, they did not pay special attention to her either. However, from time to time, the stone suddenly began
running on water chasing ducks (resembling the corresponding behavior of the coot Fúlica atra), but soon calmed down.
Fig. 2. Sturgeon Histrionicus histrionicus with caught fish. Neva River, Kronversky Strait. St. Petersburg. October 1, 2017. Photo by the author.
Fig. 3. The stone mason Histrionicus histrionicus runs on the water. Neva River, Kronversky Strait. St. Petersburg. October 1, 2017. Photo by the author.
It is difficult to say anything definite about the origin of this stone. In St. Petersburg, this species has never been observed (Malchevsky, Pukinsky 1983, Brave 1991, 2015, Birina 2002, 2014).
Fig. 4. Male stone mason Histrionicus histrionicus. Neva River, Kronversky Strait. St. Petersburg. October 1, 2017. Photo by the author.
The nesting places of stones are far away (the closest are Iceland and Svalbard); these ducks spend the winter off the Atlantic coast where there is open water. Injuries of stones are known in all countries of northern Europe (Cramp, Simmons 1978, Ogil-vie 2010). Isolated flights of these birds were noted even inland. For example, on June 12, 1988, a male moth was sighted on the Western Bug River near the village of Skoromokhi, Lviv region, and on March 29, 1987, this duck was sighted in Poland (Shydlouski 2017).
Birina U.A. 2002. Encounters of waterfowl and near-water birds in St. Petersburg during the non-nesting period: rare for the city and vagrant species // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 11 (190): 643-650.
Birina U.A. 2014. Birds of water bodies of the center of St. Petersburg // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 23 (955): 59-61.
Malchevsky A.S., Pukinsky Yu.B. 1983. Birds of the Leningrad Region and Adjacent Territories: History, Biology, Conservation. L., 1: 1-480. Brave V.M. 1991. Birds of St. Petersburg: Fauna, accommodation, protection // Tr. Zool.
Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 236: 1-275. Brave V.M. 2015. Birds of Petersburg: Illustrated reference book. SPb .: 1-463. Shidlovsky I.V. 2017. Kamenushka Histrionicus histrionicus in Ukraine // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 26 (1506): 4153.
Cramp S., Simmons K.E.L. 1978. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. I. Ostrich to
Ducks. Oxford Univ. Press .: 1-722. Ogilvie M.A. 2010. Ducks of Britain and Europe. A&C Black,
Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express issue 1506: 4149-4151
New information about korolki Regulus Crimea
Second edition. First published in 1972 *
In domestic and foreign ornithological literature (Su-Dilovskaya 1954, Portenko 1960, Makatsch 1966, etc.), there is a widespread opinion about the nesting of the yellow-headed beetle Regulus regulus in the Crimea mountains and the absence of the red-headed beetle Regulus ignicapillus there. The materials at our disposal allow us to revise this question, which has not only a narrow faunistic, but also zoogeographic significance.
The assumption of I.N.Shatilov (1874) about the nesting of the yellow-headed kinglet in the Crimea has not yet been confirmed. Moreover, as it was not before, so there is now not only direct evidence of nesting, but also reliable reports of summer encounters of adult birds. Judging by the collection specimens stored at the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Zoology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Zoological Museum of Moscow University, our field observations and collections of 1958-1969, as well as according to the literature data on the obtained specimens, the yellow-headed king is only migratory and wintering in Crimea. bird. L.A. Molchanov (1906) reports on the earliest autumn meeting on September 22 (Simferopol). We recorded the latest spring sighting of a yellow-headed beetle on April 2, 1962, in the valley of the Sukhaya Alma River.
* Kostin Yu.V. 1972. New information about the kings of the Crimea // Vestn. zool. 2: 86-87. Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2017. Volume 26. Express Edition No. 1506
Histrionicus histrionicus (L., 1758)
Order Anseriformes - Anseriformes
Duck family - Anatidae
Category and status... Category 3. Breeding species.
Short description... A small short-billed diving duck of a peculiar color, consisting of white contrasting spots on a dark (black from afar) background. The male has chestnut spots on the sides of the body. The female is more faded, the main tone is dark brown, white spots only on the head. The female's wing is monochromatic; males in breeding plumage have small white markings on tertiary flight feathers. Unlike other diving ducks, it sits high on the water, the tail is clearly visible. Voice - pleasant nasal high-pitched sounds - "vii-ah, vii-ah", although in general it is very silent.
Habitats and biology... Inhabits the banks of mountain rivers. It arranges nests near the water on cliff ledges, in heaps of boulders, as a rule, under the cover of vegetation. Of the two nests described on Lake Baikal, one was located on a steep slope under a fallen tree, the other was in a niche in a pile of limestone blocks under the cover of bushes. Judging by the dates given in the publication, nesting is extended. Due to their small numbers, the timing of migrations has not been traced. They feed on animal food, mainly aquatic invertebrates.
Spread... The coast of North America, Greenland and Iceland, the northeastern part of the Asian continent - from Chukotka to Bass. Aldan, Olekma-Charsky highlands and North Baikal. On Lake Baikal, it is located on the southwestern border of the area. Very rare breeding bird of Northern Baikal. In the Irkutsk region, at present, single finds of nests and broods are known on the territory of Vitimsky and Baikal-Lensky [2, 3, 10] reserves. The southernmost nesting find is a meeting of a pair of birds with nesting behavior in the middle reaches of the river. Sarma, where a nest with a clutch of 5 eggs was later found. Single immature individuals and small flocks were observed in different years on the eastern (Bolshoy Sea) coast of about. Olkhon and Ushkany Islands, as well as on the western coast of Lake Baikal within the Baikal-Lensky nature reserve. Previously, it was not a rarity on Southern Baikal between Kultuk and the source of the Angara, where it even hibernated. A flock of these ducks was known to fly to the Bratsk reservoir on November 2, 2006.
Number... The region is located on the southwestern border of the range, therefore it has an extremely low and unstable population. Judging by the occurrence and past distribution, in the 19th century, it was more numerous. By the middle of the last century, it has become extremely rare. Now, apparently, the number is increasing again.
Limiting factors... None known. This is one of the rarest and least studied ducks of Lake Baikal. The rarity may be due to the peripheral position of the stone moth populations inhabiting the area. Habitats are not subject to major changes, so the threat from humans is minimal and consists in the possible poaching of ducks in the summer.
Taken and necessary security measures... Inhabits the Vitimsky and Baikal-Lensky reserves. Security measures in the area have not been developed. Further research is needed to identify the nesting areas of the wheatear in the Baikal region and control the state of the population of this species.
Sources of information: 1 - Maleev, Popov, 2007, 2 - Melnikov, Durnev, 2009, 3 - Olovyannikova, 20006, 4 - Popov et al., 2001, 5 - Pyzhyanov et al., 1997, b - Ryabtsev, Malykh, 2008, 7 - Scriabin, 1975, 8 - Stepanyan, 2003, 9 - Tretyakov, 1940, 10-Unzhakov, 1988, 11 - Radde, 1863, 12 - compiler's data.